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Module 5 Refining Objectives, Scope, and Other Project Parameters Session 5.3 Preparing the Product and Process Structures. The product and process structure. Project analysis report (PAR) (approval document). Module 5. Module 5 Review PAR refine key parameters.

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slide1
Module 5Refining Objectives, Scope, and Other Project ParametersSession 5.3 Preparing the Product and Process Structures
slide2

The product and process structure

Project analysis report (PAR)

(approval document)

Module 5

Module 5

Review PAR

refine key

parameters

Productstructure

Other key project parameters

Processstructure

Module 6

Module 6

Continue

refining

Work breakdown structure (WBS)

Responsibility matrix

Master summary schedule

Module 7

Activity-based schedule (CPM)

Module 7

Produce

detailed

schedule

Project implementation plan

instructional objectives
Instructional objectives
  • Create (refine) a product and process structure for a project
  • Describe how the control period relates to the level of detail used on the product and process structures

Product structure

PAR

  • Objectives
  • Deliverables
  • Life-cycle phases

Process structure

for implementation

The learner will be able to:

slide4

Product structure: a hierarchical description of the major components of each project deliverable or end itemComponent: a major part of a deliverable Subcomponent: a part of a componentElement: a part of a subcomponent Each phase may have different deliverables

The product structure

characteristics of the product structure
Characteristics of the product structure
  • Hierarchical structure (top-down)
  • Each level describes the major parts of the immediately preceding level
  • Each product piece has one and only one place
  • Outline format is typical (can be a tree diagram)
  • Most have 3 to 6 levels of detail
  • Only nouns appear on product structure
simplified product structure of a house project
Simplified product structure of a house project

0 House project

1.1 House (Structure)

1.1.1 Site

1.1.2 Foundation

1.1.3 Frame

1.1.4 Roof

1.1.5 Systems

1.2 Landscaping

1.3 Manuals

Level

0

Projectname

1

Deliverables

2

Component

3

Sub-component

Level

name

product structure benefits
Product structure: benefits
  • Clarifies scope (deliverables)
    • Helpful for all size projects
    • Essential for projects with many or complex deliverables
  • Promotes shared understanding
  • Reduces errors of omission
  • Serves as multipurpose common framework
the process structure
The process structure
  • A planned life cycle promotes efficiency, productivity, and quality.
    • Define milestones (major events)
    • Specify decision gates
    • Specify documentation requirements for gates
    • Agree on decision makers and participants at gates
    • Agree on criteria for decision making

Design

Build

Inspect

Terminate

The process structure: The sequence of actions that result in creation of the deliverables

process structure benefits
Process structure benefits
  • Improves project quality, efficiency, and productivity
  • Reduces errors of omission
  • Creates a game plan that clarifies expectations and promotes coordination
formal process structure benefits
Formal process structure benefits
  • Improves overall communication and contact
    • Common framework and vocabulary for phases, subphases, process elements, and decision points
    • Consistency in naming activities during detailed scheduling
    • Clarifies expectations
  • Sets up creation of master summary schedule (module 6)

The project team should always plan

the process structure carefully

level of detail
Level of detail
  • Product structure?
  • Process structure?

How far do we go?

Influenced by control period—how frequently progress is measured

projects have several levels of detail

Management level

Control period

Projects have several levels of detail

SUMMARY PLAN

Top

Months

Month

Weeks

Middle

Weeks

DETAILED PLAN

Operating

Days

Days

Different levels of management need different amounts of detail

* This is called levels of indenture*

how much disaggregation is enough
How much disaggregation is enough?

Product structure

Process structure (life cycle)

Deliverable (House)

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Component (Roof)

Component

Subphase

Subphase

Subcomponent

(Rafters)

Subcomponent

(Plywood skin)

Subcomponent

(Shingles)

Element

Element

Process

element

Process

element

Process

element

Process

element

Subelement

Subelement

Time

setting level of detail
Setting level of detail
  • A) Control period
  • How frequently do I measure progress?
  • Time interval between measurements
  • E) Detailed schedule
  • Unit of time for activity-level planning (module 7)
  • What pieces of work should I measure?

C) Product structure

Process structure

B) Level of detail

THINK

AHEAD

D) Disaggregation

(modules 6 and 7)

control period and level of detail
Control period and level of detail
  • Shorter control periods usually need more detail
  • Longer control periods usually need less detail
  • Rule of thumb: Unit of time for activities is always one level less than control period’s

QUARTER

1

2

3

MONTH

1

2

3

4

WEEKS

Control period

Quarter

Month

Week

Day

Activity unit of time

Months

Weeks

Days

Hours

M

T

W

Th

F

DAYS

control period activity duration and management control
Control period, activity duration, and management control

Situation

Illustration

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

A) Control period smaller

than activity duration

Control period: month

Activity duration: quarters

Activity 1

Activity 2

Management impact

(Middle management)

  • No control
  • Not enough detail
  • No insight on progress until month 4
control period activity duration and management control1
Control period, activity duration, and management control

Situation

Illustration

B) Control period equal to

activity duration

Control period: month

Activity duration: months

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

A1.1

A1.2

A1.3

Management impact

(Middle management)

  • Weak control
control period activity duration and management control2

M1

M2

A1.12

A1.13

A1.11

A2.20

A2.21

Control period, activity duration, and management control

Situation

Illustration

C) Control period about 1 unit greaterthan activityduration

Control period: month

Activity duration: weeks

Management impact

(Middle management)

  • Strong control
  • Appropriate detail
control period activity duration and management control3

M1

A1.01

A1.02

A1.03

A1.30

Control period, activity duration, and management control

Situation

Illustration

D) Control period much greater than activity duration

Control period: month

Activity duration: days

Management impact

(Middle management)

  • Weak control
  • Too much detail
influences on length of control period
Influences on length of control period
  • Level of management
  • Length of project
  • Degree of risk
  • Level of experience of workers
control period and level of management
Control period and level of management
  • Control period varies with management levels
  • Closer to the work, the shorter the control period

Topmanagement

Control period

Time

Operational

House project

Owner: Weekly reports “Is the roof on?”

Contractor: 2 days “Are the shingles laid?”

Subcontractor: Twice per day “How many square feet are finished?”

control period and project length

Length of project (3 years)

Length of project (3 months)

M1

M2

M3

Y1

Y2

Y3

Monthlycontrol period

Weekly control period

Activities inweekly units

Activities inday units

Control period and project length
  • Control period related to length of project
  • Shorter projects usually have shorter control periods
  • Longer projects usually have longer control periods
control period and risk

2 Days

Old control period

New control

period

1 Day

Control period and risk
  • The greater the risk, the shorter the control period
  • Shortening the control period can provide greater control
  • Redefining the control period influences the level of detail needed
  • Problems can result in resetting the control period
control period and experience

Control period and experience

Longer

control

period

Experiencedworkers

Need lesssupervision

Lessdetail

Worker experience influences control period

Inexperiencedworkers

Need moresupervision

Shorter

control

period

Moredetail

summary control period or level of detail
Summary: Control period or level of detail

Management level

Length

Risk

Experience

Level of detail

Control period

Module 5

Product structure

Process structure

Unit of time

for activities

Planning framework(module 6)

Module 6

Activity-basedscheduling

Module 7

Projectimplementationplan

creating the product structure
Creating the product structure
  • Start with the deliverables
  • Review other sections

PRODUCT STRUCTURE

DELIVERABLES

PAR

House (structure)

Landscape

Manuals

OBJECTIVES

A five-room house.

OTHER SECTIONS

slide28

House product structure

0 House project

1.1 House (Structure)

1.2 Landscape

1.3 Manuals

Level 0 1

Project

Deliverables

house product structure continued
House product structure (continued)

0 House project

1.1 House (Structure)

1.1.1 Site

1.1.2 Foundation

1.1.3 Frame

1.1.4 Roof

1.1.5 Systems

1.2 Landscape

1.2.1 Plantings

1.2.2 Lawn

1.3 Manuals

Level 01

Project

Deliverables

house product structure continued1
House product structure(continued)

0 House project

1.1 House (Structure)

1.1.1 Site

1.1.2 Foundation

1.1.3 Frame

1.1.4 Roof

1.1.5 Systems

1.1.5.1 Electrical

1.1.5.2 Plumbing

1.1.5.3 Telephone

1.2 Landscape

1.2.1 Plantings

1.2.2 Lawn

1.3 Manuals

Level 0 1 2 3

creating the process structure
Creating the process structure
  • Start with the project schedule in the PAR
  • Develop detail through team discussion
  • For each (sub)phase, clarify:
    • Actions
    • Decision gates
    • Documentation
    • Personnel involved
    • Criteria for decision making

PAR

Project schedule for implementation phase

2 months

Plan

3 months

Construct

1 week

Inspect

1 week

Terminate

implementation process house project
Implementation process - house project

Implementation phase

Plan

Construct

Inspect

Terminate

more detail improves control

Implementation phase

Subphase

Plan

Construct

Inspect

Terminate

End project

Start operations

Mobilize

Procure

Build

Clean up

Process elements

Plans approved

Facility complete

= milestone

More detail improves control
summary module 5

Summary - Module 5

Goal: Organize and disaggregate work for better planning and control

The product and process structures createa framework for disaggregation

The level of detail is related to the control period

The length of the control period isinfluenced by:

Level of management

Length of project

Degree of risk

Level of experience of the workers

summary module 5 continued

Summary - Module 5 (continued)

The analysis of the product and process structures yields:

Shared understanding of deliverables and processes

Fewer errors of omission

Improved team communication, coordination, and control

The development of the product and process structures should be a team effort

Refining key project parameters and the PAR is necessary

The PAR can be out of date

The PAR is not sufficiently detailed

The team needs to develop a shared understanding

summary module 5 continued1

Summary - Module 5 (continued)

Refining the PAR is beneficial

Common vocabulary

Shared understanding of objectives

Reduced miscommunication

Increased commitment

Better alignment within team

Greater efficiency and productivity

summary module 5 continued2

Summary - Module 5 (continued)

Review the PAR systematically:

Analyze

Escalate

Document

Projects are special undertakings

Temporary

Problem or need-oriented

No two are exactly alike

Every project should be carefully planned and systematically managed

slide38

Summary - Module 5(continued)

Project analysis report (PAR)

(approval document)

Module 5

Module 5

Review PAR

refine key

parameters

Productstructure

Other key project parameters

Processstructure

Module 6

Module 6

Continue

refining

Work breakdown structure (WBS)

Responsibility matrix

Master summary schedule

Module 7

Activity-based schedule (CPM)

Module 7

Produce

detailed

schedule

Project implementation plan

end of module discussion questions

End-of-module discussion questions

How does the length of the control period influence the level of detail of the product and process structures?

Comment on the value of developing well-defined product and process structures.

end of module discussion questions continued

End-of-module discussion questions (continued)

What would the product and process structures look like for an education project, such as a new mathematics curriculum for a high school?