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Black holes : observations Lecture 1: Introduction. Sergei Popov ( SAI MSU ). Plan of the lectures. Introduction. Formation of stellar mass BHs. GRBs, SNae. 2. Isolated stellar mass BHs BHs in close binary systems. ULX. Binary population synthesis code.

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plan of the lectures
Plan of the lectures.
  • Introduction. Formation of stellar mass BHs.GRBs, SNae.
  • 2. Isolated stellar mass BHs
  • BHs in close binary systems.ULX. Binary population synthesis code.
  • Supermassive BHs. Mass measurements. Sgr A*.
  • Mass growth of supermassive BHs. Hierarchical model. BH coalescence. Gravitational waves. GW rocket.
  • Jets from BHs. Tidal disruption.
  • Horizon problem. Primordial BHs. Exotic alternatives.
main general surveys
Main general surveys
  • astro-ph/0610657Neven Bilic BH phenomenology
  • astro-ph/0604304Thomas W. Baumgarte BHs: from speculations to observations
  • hep-ph/0511217Scott A. Hughes Trust but verify: the case for astrophysical BHs
bhs as astronomical sources
BHs as astronomical sources
  • Primordial BHs.
  • Not discovered, yet. Only upper limits (mostly from gamma-ray observations).
  • Stellar mass BHs.
  • There are more than twenty good candidates in close binary systems.
  • Accretion, jets. Observed at all wavelenghts.
  • Isolated stellar mass BHs are not discovered up to now.
  • But there are interesting candidates among microlensing events.
  • Intermediate mass BHs.
  • Their existence is uncertain, but there are good candidates among ULX.
  • Observed in radio, x-rays, and optics.
  • Supermassive BHs.
  • There are many (dozens) good candidates with mass estimates. In the center of our Galaxy with extremely high certainty there is supermassive BH.
  • Accretion, jets, tidal discruptions of normal stars.
  • Observed at all wavelenghts.
the most certain bh sgr a
The most certain BH – Sgr A*

Stellar orbits from 1992 till 2007

(see the reference ingr-qc/0506078)

and it becomes more and more certain
... and it becomes more and more certain

Observations are going on.

So, the number of stars with

well measured orbits grows.

(see the reference ingr-qc/0506078)

stellar mass bhs the case of solar metallicity
Stellar mass BHs.The case of solar metallicity.

BHs are formed by massive stars.

The limiting mass separating BH

and NS progenitors is not well known.

In addition, there can be a range ofmasses above this limit in which, again,

NSs are formed (also, there can be

a range in which both types ofcompact objects form).

(Woosley et al. 2002)

mass spectrum of compact objects
Mass spectrum of compact objects

Results of numerical models

(Timmes et al. 1996, astro-ph/9510136)

mass spectrum of compact objects1
Mass spectrum of compact objects

Comparison of a computer modelwith observations

(Timmes et al. 1996, astro-ph/9510136)

a ns from a massive progenitor
A NS from a massive progenitor

Anomalous X-ray pulsar in the clusterWesterlund1most probably has a very massive progenitor, >40 MO.


stellar mass bhs the case of zero metallicity
Stellar mass BHs. The case of zero metallicity

Pop III massive stars couldproduce very massive BHs whichbecame seeds for formationof supermassive BHs.

(Woosley et al. 2002)

bhs and nss in close binary systems
BHs and NSs in close binary systems

Studying close binaries with compact objects we can obtain

mass estimates for progenitors of NSs and BHs

(see, for example, Ergma, van den Heuvel 1998 A&A 331, L29).

An interesting result was obtained for the NS system GX 301-2.

The progenitor mass was found to be equal to 50 solar masses or more.

On the other hand, for many systems with BHs

estimates of progenitor masses are lower: 20-50 solar masses.

Finally, for the BH system LMC X-3 the mass of the progenitor is estimated as >60solar masses.

So, the situation is rather complicated.

Most probably, in some range of masses, at least in binary systems,

both variants are possible.

grbs and bhs
GRBs and BHs

According to the standard modern model of long GRBs, a BH is the main element of the “central engine”.

So, studying GRBs we can hope to get important informationabout the first moments of BH’s life.

ns and bh coalescence
NS and BH coalescence

Numerical models show (astro-ph/0505007, 0505094) that such eventsdo not produce GRBs

prompt mergers of nss with bhs
Prompt mergers of NSs with BHs

Coleman Millerin his recent paperdemonstrated that in NS-BH coalescence most probably there isno stable mass trasfer andan accretion disc is not formed.

This means – no GRB!


a signal from ergosphere
A signal from ergosphere

(arXiv: 0706.3191)

details on grb light curves
Details on GRB light curves


(arXiv: 0706.3191)

supernovae and grbs
Supernovae and GRBs

SN Ib/c are often observedin the radio band.

It was shown that just afraction of them can be relatedto GRBs or XRFs (about few %).



The neutrino signal during a (direct) BH formation must be significantly differentfrom the signal emitted during a NS formation.

Different curves are plotted for different types of neutrino:electron – solid, electon anti-neutrino – dashed, mu and tau-neutrinos – dot dashed.

Constant growth of neutrino energy and a sharp cut-off indicate a BH formation.

(arXiv: 0706.3762)

bh signatures in sn light curves
BH signatures in SN light curves

For this plot no radiactive heatingis taken into account.

Balberg, Shapiro astro-ph/0104215

(see also Zampieri et al., 1998, ApJ 505, 876)