The metal nonmetal bond
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IONIC BONDING. The Metal – Nonmetal Bond. Lewis Dot Structures. A famous chemist named Lewis invented a symbol to show valence electrons. He used a dot next to the symbol to represent each valence electron. The dots are spread around the 4 sides. Each pair of dots Represents a bond.

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The metal nonmetal bond

IONIC BONDING

The Metal – Nonmetal Bond


Lewis dot structures
Lewis Dot Structures

  • A famous chemist named Lewis invented a symbol to show valence electrons. He used a dot next to the symbol to represent each valence electron. The dots are spread around the 4 sides.

  • Each pair of dots

    Represents a bond.


When a metal and nonmetal come together a pair of electrons acts as a bond they each become ions
When a metal and nonmetal come together, a pair of electrons acts as a bond. They each become ions.


The rules
The Rules: acts as a bond. They each become ions.

  • Metal first, nonmetal second

  • Nonmetal ion becomes ‘ide’

  • Metal is positive, nonmetal is negative

  • Charges must balance to zero

  • Formula uses a subscript to balance charges

  • Example: MgCl2 ; Na2O; NaCl



This is called an ionic bond
This is called an form a new compound.ionic bond.


Practice
Practice: form a new compound.


Answers
Answers: form a new compound.


Solutions
Solutions form a new compound.

  • When ionic compounds are put in water, they dissolve into ions:


Polyatomic ions are groups of atoms bonded together with a charge hence the name poly atomic ions

Examples: form a new compound.

OH-1 = hydroxide

NO3-1 = nitrate

PO4-3 = phosphate

SO4-2 = sulfate

*They behave

just like single atom

ions.

Polyatomic ions: are groups of atoms bonded together with a charge hence the name “poly” “atomic” “ions”.


Practice: form a new compound. Use polyatomic ions just like any other ion; But when you have more than one , use parentheses.

  • barium hydroxide=

  • Notice parentheses show multiple ions.


barium hydroxide= Ba OH form a new compound.

+2 -1

Ba(OH)2

+2 -1(2) = 0





potassium sulfate form a new compound.



Transition metals metals that have more than one possible charge
Transition metals form a new compound.:Metals that have more than one possible charge:

  • Cobalt: Co+2, Co+3

  • Copper: Cu+, Cu+2

  • Iron: Fe+2, Fe+3

  • Lead: Pb+2, Pb+4

  • When writing the names, always use roman numerals to show the charge.


Examples
Examples: form a new compound.

  • Cobalt (II) Co+2, Cobalt (III) Co+3

  • Copper(I), Cu+, or Copper (II), Cu+2

  • Iron(II) Fe+2, or iron (III), Fe+3

  • Lead(II), Pb+2, or lead (IV), Pb+4

  • Each different charged ion behaves completely different than the other! The charges matter!


Practice1

Practice! form a new compound.

Lead (IV) hydroxide





  • CoPO form a new compound.4


  • CoPO form a new compound.4 = Cobalt (III) phosphate

    +3 -3


  • Fe form a new compound.2(SO4)3


+3 -2 form a new compound.

Iron (III) sulfate Fe2(SO4)3


Hydrates
Hydrates form a new compound.

Some ionic compounds absorb water molecules into their structures. These are called hydrates. NaCl•2H2O is the symbol for sodium chloride dihydrate. Notice the prefix di- means 2 water molecules.

Name these hydrates: MgSO4•5H2O

CuCl2•4H2O


Finding percentage of water in a hydrate
Finding Percentage of Water form a new compound.in a Hydrate

You can find the percentage of water in a hydrate by dividing the mass of the water by the total mass times 100.

Lets take NaCl•2H2O

Using the periodic table, the mass of Na=23, Cl=35.5, H2O = 18. Total mass with 2 H20 is 94.4

Water mass (36)/ Total (94.4) x 100

= 38 % water


Pop quiz hot or not
Pop Quiz: HOT or NOT form a new compound.

  • Ionic Bonding….


Hot for sure
HOT form a new compound., for sure!

If Miley says it’s hot, it’s HOT!


Covalent Bonds form a new compound.

  • What is a Covalent Bond?

  • - A covalent bond is a chemical bond resulting from SHARING of electrons between 2 nonmetals.

  • ?


Covalent Bonds form a new compound.can have multiple bonds, so you should be familiar with the following…

Single Covalent Bond- chemical bond resulting from sharing of an electron pair between two atoms. H2O

Double Covalent Bond- chemical bond resulting from sharing of two electron pairs between two atoms. CO2

Triple Covalent Bond-chemical bond resulting from sharing of three electron pairs between two atoms. N2


Types of covalent bonds
Types of Covalent Bonds form a new compound.

  • Two types of colvalent bonds: nonpolar and polar

  • Recall electronegativity (desire for electrons) -see shaded table on ole yeller

  • The electronegativity difference between the two atoms determines whether it is a nonpolar or polar bond.

    Electronegativity difference:

    0 .4 2.0

    Nonpolar PolarIonic


Polar bonds
Polar Bonds form a new compound.

A nonpolar bond tends to share electrons equally

A polar bond means there is a dipole or one pole (end) with a positive charge and one pole (end) with a negative charge, therefore they tend to stick together better since their opposite charges attract. (=)(-)

Very strong polar bonds are

ionic bonds like NaCl


Covalent bonds do not have ions or need to balance charges
Covalent Bonds form a new compound.Do NOT have ions or need to Balance Charges

  • They use prefixes to show the number of atoms:

  • Mono-

  • Di-

  • Tri-

  • Tetra-

  • Examples:

  • H2O =

    dihydrogen monoxide

  • CO2 = carbon dioxide

  • dinitrogen tetraoxide = N2O4

  • Phosphorus trichloride = PCl3



Differences
Differences: bonding? List them below:

Ionic

  • Metal , nonmetal-ide

  • Balance charges using subscripts

  • Polyatomic ions use parentheses in multiples

  • Transition metals use roman numerals to show charge


Differences1
Differences: bonding? List them below:

Covalent

  • Two nonmetals

  • Nonmetal, nonmetal-ide

  • No ions- they share e-

  • Use prefixes

  • Don’t need to balance


Differences2
Differences: bonding? List them below:

Ionic

  • Metal , nonmetal-ide

  • Balance charges using subscripts

  • Polyatomic ions use parentheses in multiples

  • Transition metals use roman numerals to show charge

Covalent

  • Two nonmetals

  • Nonmetal, nonmetal-ide

  • No ions- they share e-

  • Use prefixes

  • Don’t need to balance


Covalent bonds hot or not

Covalent bonds: bonding? List them below:HOT or NOT?


Definitely hot baby
Definitely bonding? List them below:HOT Baby!


The End! bonding? List them below: