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GSM Foundation Course. Prepared by Syed Amir Abbas. GSM Operator in Pakistan. CDMA One. 14%. GSM and Others. GSM. TDMA. 11%. 75%. Source: European Mobile Communications(EMC). Vendor’s Of Operators. Core (MSC/BSC) RAN (BTS)

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Gsm foundation course

GSM Foundation Course

Prepared by

Syed Amir Abbas



Gsm and others

CDMA One

14%

GSM and Others

GSM

TDMA

11%

75%

Source: European Mobile Communications(EMC)


Vendor s of operators
Vendor’s Of Operators

Core (MSC/BSC) RAN (BTS)

  • Mobilink Alcatel/Huawei/Siemens/NokiaMotrola/Alcatel

  • UfoneHuawei/Nortel Huawei / Nortel

  • Telenore Siemens/Nokia Siemens / Nokia

  • WaridEricsson Ericsson / Huawei

  • Zong ZTE/Huawei Ericsson/ZTE/Alcatel


Subscriber data base
Subscriber Data Base

  • Mobilink 31,958,597

  • Telenore 17,841,074

  • Ufone 17,800,424

  • Warid 15,114,678

  • Zong 3,662,099

    Information received from PTA site survey on May 2008 (www.pta.com)


What is telecommunication
What is Telecommunication ?

  • Telecommunication means to change information into electronic signals for remote transmission and switching.

  • Fast Deployment

  • Saving Transmission cost.

  • Easy and Fast Access.


Frequency
Frequency

“ The frequency of a radio wave is the number of times

that the wave oscillates per second."

  • FM Radio : 100 MHz Approx.

  • Television : 300 MHz Approx.

  • Mobile Networks : 300 – 2000 MHz Approx.


Bandwidth
Bandwidth

  • In electronic communication, bandwidth is the width of the range (or band) of frequencies that an electronic signal uses on a given transmission medium.

  • In this usage, bandwidth is expressed in terms of the difference between the highest-frequency signal component and the lowest-frequency signal component.

  • Bandwidth = Highest freq – Lowest Freq


Channels

A Channel is a frequency or set of frequency which can be allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

Types Of Communication Channels.

Channels


What is multiple access
What is Multiple Access allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

  • Simultaneous private use of a transmission medium by multiple independent users is called Multiple Access.

  • Advantages Of Multiple Access

    • Increased capacity

    • Reduced capital requirement

    • Decreased per user expense


Fdma tdma cdma
FDMA, TDMA & CDMA allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

  • FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

  • Each user on a different frequency

  • A channel is a frequency

  • TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

  • Each user on a different window period in time slot.

  • CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

  • Each user uses the same frequency all the time but mixed with different distinguished code patterns.


1 st generation cellular system
1 allocated for the transmission and reception of information. st Generation Cellular System

  • Widespread introduction in early 1980s.

  • Analogue modulation.

  • Frequency division multiple access.

  • Voice traffic only.

  • No inter-network roaming possible.

  • Insecure air interface.

  • Examples :

    • AMPS (Advance mobile Phone System, American based,800MHz)

    • TACS (Total Access Communications System, UK based,900MHz)

    • C-450 (German standard, 450MHz)

    • JTACS (Japanese Total Access Communications System,900MHz).


2 nd generation cellular system
2 allocated for the transmission and reception of information. nd Generation Cellular System

  • Widespread introduction in 1990s.

  • Use digital modulation.

  • Variety of multiple access strategies.

  • More efficient use of radio spectrum.

  • International roaming capability.

  • Secure air interface.

  • Compatibility with ISDN.


Gsm architecture overview
GSM Architecture Overview allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

  • A GSM system is made up of three subsystems:

    • The mobile station (MS)

    • The Base station subsystem (BSS)

    • The Network and switching subsystem (NSS)

  • The interfaces defined between each of these sub systems include:

    • “A” interface between NSS and BSS

    • “Abis” interface between BSC and BTS (Within the BSS)

    • “Um” air interface between the BSS and the MS


Abis Interface allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

Interface


Gsm frequency concepts
GSM Frequency Concepts allocated for the transmission and reception of information.


GSM allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

Network

'B' subscriber

ANSWERS

What happens

NEXT?

'A' subscriber

CALLS

GSM Call Setup


AUC allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

HLR

A subscriber

BSC

  • MS Mobile Station = phone + SIM card

  • BTS Base Transceiver Station

  • BSC Base Station Controller

  • HLR Home Location Register

  • MSC Mobile services Switching Centre

  • VLR Visitor Location Register

  • AUC Authentication Centre Stand-alone or integrated in HLR

  • EIR Equipment Identity Register For blacklisting stolen and unwanted equipment

  • SMSC Short Message Service ”Support” Centre

  • VMS Voice Messaging System

  • PrePaid Node Hosting prepaid service system

  • IN Intelligent Network services

  • PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network

  • PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange

BTS

VMS

MSC/VLR

Warid

EIR

PrePaidNode

SMSC

INTERNET

Telenore

MSC

w

BSC

PSTN

Mobilink

B subscriber


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


BSC allocated for the transmission and reception of information. Base Station Controller

A subscriber

BTS =

Base Transceiver Station

  • The call request reaches the BSC from the BTS and is forwarded to MSC.

  • After call is established, the BSC will perform decoding of the call (in typical config.)


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMS

Voicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


  • Checks A number. allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

  • To whom is A subscriber calling?(Checks B number)

  • Example : A subscriberhas prepaid number.

MSC

Mobile Switching Centre


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


  • Does the A subscriber have allocated for the transmission and reception of information. money left on his/her account?

  • When the call is established and on-going the subscriber’s account is decremented accordingly.

PrePaid Node


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


  • Where is the B subscriber? allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

  • MSC interrogates in HLR.(HLR = Home Location Register)

MSC

Mobile Switching Centre


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR allocated for the transmission and reception of information.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR

Home Location Register


HLR where he/she is right now’ (i.e. which VLR)

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR where he/she is right now’ (i.e. which VLR)

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR where he/she is right now’ (i.e. which VLR)

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR where he/she is right now’ (i.e. which VLR)

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR where he/she is right now’ (i.e. which VLR)

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


MSC

Mobile Switching Centre


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR

Home Location Register


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

MSC

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


  • ’Thank you, HLR!’ address for B-subscriber to HLR.

  • Speech connection path will set up now towards the MSC/VLR where the B subscriber is presently located.

MSC

Mobile Switching Centre


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


MSC

Mobile Switching Centre


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


HLR address for B-subscriber to HLR.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


  • BSC now sends a PAGING MESSAGE to all the BTSs that it covers/controls.

  • Carrys PAGING RESPONSE from called MS back to MSC.

  • Allocates a RADIO channel through a BTS with best available and allowable SIGNAL STRENGTH for called MS.

  • Performs SPEECH CODING when call is established.

BSC

Base Station Controller


HLR covers/controls.

A subscriber

BSC

BTS

VMSVoicemail

MSC

EIR

PrePaid

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

MSC

BSC

PSTNFixed Network

PSTNInternational

PABX

B subscriber

BTS


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