chapter 2 cell structure and cell organisation n.
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Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Cell Organisation. Unicellular. A single cell performs all the basic life process. Example: Amoeba sp. , Paramecium sp. Multicellular. An organism consists of more than one cell . Each group of cell specialized to carry our life processes.

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unicellular
Unicellular
  • A single cell performs all the basic life process.
  • Example: Amoeba sp., Paramecium sp
multicellular
Multicellular
  • An organism consists of more than one cell.
  • Each group of cell specialized to carry our life processes.
  • Example: Homo sapien (human), animals and plants.
multicellular1
Multicellular
  • It has five levels of organisation
  • Cells
  • Tissues.
  • Organs.
  • System.
  • Organisms
cells
Cells
  • basic units of structure and function.
  • Example: Red blood cells and mesophyll palisade cells
tissues
Tissues
  • made up of cells with similar in structure and function.
  • Example: Muscle tissues and vascular tissues
organs
Organs
  • made up of tissues that perform a specific function.
  • Example: Heart and flower.
system
System
  • two of more organs that perform a specific function.
  • Example: Digestive system and root system
organisms
Organisms
  • wholeliving thing that carry out all the basic life processes.
  • Example: Human and durian tree
cell structure
Cell structure
  • Amoeba sp.:

plasma membrane, food vacuole, contractile vacuole, pseudopodium, nucleus, ectoplasma, endoplasm.

  • Paramecium sp.:

food vacuole, contractile vacuoles, gullet, oral groove, cilia, macronucleus, micronucleus,

locomotion
Locomotion
  • Amoeba sp.

Pseudopodium(false foot) helps it to move forward slowly and it is known as amoeboid movement.

  • Paramecium sp.:

Hair-like cilia to beat against water.

feeding of amoeba sp
Feeding of Amoeba sp

Omnivore. Eat bacteria, plant cells, algae and other microscopic organisms.

  • Entrapment – extend pseudopodium.
  • Engulfment – engulf tiny food (phagocytosis) with its pseudopodia.
  • Digestion – food enclosed in food vacuole
  • Absorption – enzyme digests the bacteria
  • Egesting – expel indigestible material.
feeding of paramecium sp
Feeding of Paramecium sp

Eats bacteria, organic material and other microscopic organisms.

  • Sweeping – movement of cilia. Food moves along the oral groove into the gullet.
  • Digestion – food vacuole circulates round the cell.
  • Elimination – undigested food is eliminated at the anal pore
reproduction of amoeba sp
Reproduction of Amoeba sp

two types of reproduction.

  • Binary Fission – nucleus divides (favourable condition) and then follows by division of cytoplasm. Two daughter cells are formed (mitotic division).
  • Spore Formation – spores form (bad condition) and germinate into new amoeba under favourable condition
reproduction of paramecium sp
Reproduction of Paramecium sp
  • two types of reproduction.
  • Binary Fission – micronucleus undergoes mitosis (favourable condition). Macronucleus begins to elongation and form two. Cell content divide and two daughter cells are formed.
  • Conjugation– two same species parent paramecia exchange genetic material of their micronuclei. Each parent divides and forms four daughter cells.
osmoregulation
Osmoregulation
  • Amoeba sp.

water moves into the cell by osmosis and prevention of bursting, it has a contractile vacuole

  • Paramecium sp.

water moves into the cell by osmosis and prevention of bursting, it has two contractile vacuoles

slide18
Respiration Amoeba sp. and Paramecium sp. (both): exchange gases throughout the whole cell membrane through diffusion
slide19

ExcretionAmoeba sp. and Paramecium sp. (both): waste products are ammonia and carbon dioxide by diffusion. Solid waste in paramecium is expelled through its anal pore.

cell organisation multicellular in human
Cell Organisation (Multicellular) in Human
  • Cells: Epithelial cells, muscle cells, white blood cells, red blood cells, sperm, nerve cells.
  • Tissues: Epithelial tissue, smooth muscle tissue, connective tissue, skeletal tissue, nerve tissue.
  • Organs: Stomach, heart, kidney, lung, liver.
  • Systems: Circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system,.
  • Organisms: Human.
cell organisation in plant
Cell Organisation in Plant
  • Cells: Parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells, epidermal cells.
  • Tissues: Epidermal tissue, meristem tissue, vascular tissue.
  • Organs: Leaf organ, flower organ, stem organ, root organ
  • Systems: Shoot system, root system.
  • Organisms: Plant