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Chapter 11 Byzantine The New Roman. Constantinople. Strategic City-on a peninsula, Constantinople overlooked the Bosporus, the narrow strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Water protected the city from the Germanic invaders. The strait made it perfect for trade.

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  • Strategic City-on a peninsula, Constantinople overlooked the Bosporus, the narrow strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.
  • Water protected the city from the Germanic invaders.
  • The strait made it perfect for trade.
geography of byzantine
Geography of Byzantine
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Balkan Peninsula
  • Russia
  • Black Sea
  • Caucasus Mountains
rome and byzantine
Rome and Byzantine

The Roman empire divided in A.D. 395.

The eastern half became known as Byzantine Empire.

Constantinople is the perfect location between Europe and Asia.

Constantinople is the capital of the “Eastern Rome”.

what made the byzantine empire rich and powerful
What made the Byzantine Empire rich and powerful?

Strong imperial leadership

Strategic location of its capital.

Successful military conquest.

Strong ties to church

emperor justinian
Emperor Justinian

Emperor Justinian – Ruled the Byzantine Empire at its height in A.D. 527.

Justinian tried to restore the old Roman Empire ( it was very expensive)

Theodora- wife, empress was very intelligent. She helped to shape his polices. She built homes for poor and helped the status of women.

Justinian’s Code

Corpus Juris Civilis:

1. Digest

2. Code

3. Institutes 

justinian code of law
Justinian Code of Law

Corpus of Civil Law- Justinian reformed the Roman Laws and appointed a commission to organize and classify the laws.

Later the Justinian Code became the basis for most European legal system.

justinian rule
Justinian Rule

Justinian was plagued by attacks by the Persians and the Germanic invaders. (Ostrogoths in Italy and Spain, Visigoth is Southern Spain and the Lombard in Northern Italy.)

hagia sophia1
Hagia Sophia

Emperor Justinian chose two Greek mathematicians to design.

Combines Greek balance and proportion with Roman engineering skills.

The Church is a vast rectangle and in the center is a huge dome.

The dome seems to look like it is floating in the heavens.

byzantine religion
Byzantine Religion

Byzantine Emperors appointed Church officials and used the wealth of the Church for government purpose.

Justinian tried to unify the Church under one Christian faith, this led to persecution of the Jews and non- Greek Christians.

religious structure
Religious structure

Clergy- Church people, priest, ministers etc…

Laity- Church goers, people that go to church.

Conflicts over use of Icons- Some argued that the Bible prohibits such images and others said they were symbols of God’s presence in human affairs.

icons disputes
Icons Disputes

Emperor Leo- (A.D. 726) Believed icons encouraged superstitions and the worship of idols. His supporters became known as Iconoclast or image breakers.


The word icon is Greek for “image”. In Byzantine art the image on an icon is of a holy person.

conflicts between byzantine emperors and the pope of roman
Conflicts between Byzantine Emperors and the Pope of Roman

Refusal to help Pope with military protection against the Germanic Lombard’s in Italy.

The Pope then turned to the Franks, Germanic Catholic people in Western Europe.

The Pope gave Charlemagne, the leader of the Franks, the title of emperor.

Schism - Separation

  • 1054 A.D. doctrinal, political, and geographical differences finally led to a schism.

Split of the Christian church:

Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox.

chapter 11 13 test
Chapter 11-13 Test

Carolinian Miniscule


Battle of Tours


William the Conquer








Pope Urban II

Battle of Hastings

Henry II



Magna Carta





medieval age
Medieval Age

Germanic invasions destroyed the Roman Empire by A.D. 476

Dark Age- trade declined, money was no longer used, law and order did not exist, education almost disappeared. ( Transition between ancient and modern times.)

Franks- Clovis was king of the Franks who settled in France and Western Germany. Clovis was the first Frankish ruler to accept Catholicism. Louis

merovingian rulers
Merovingian Rulers

Frankish rulers divided the kingdom among their heirs until the political power had passed from the kings to the government officials known as mayor of the palace.

charles martel
Charles Martel

Charles Martel- Mayor of the Palace in A.D. 714, he had defeated the Muslims and gained much respect.

Battle of Tours

pepin the short
Pepin the Short

Pepin the Short- son of Charles Martel became King of the Franks in A.D. 752.

The pope anointed Pepin and had the Church’s blessing.

Pepin forced the Lombard's out of Rome. He then gave the pope a piece of land in central Italy. Papal States

Charlemagne- son of Pepin the Short became king in A.D. 768. Charlemagne is one of Europe’s greatest monarchs. He started the Carolingian dynasty. He doubled the Frankish kingdom and reinstated law and education of the Old Roman days.


charlemagne s coronation
Charlemagne’s Coronation

Pope Leo III – Charlemagne defended him against the Roman nobles. To thank him, the pope, crowned Charlemagne the New Holy Roman Emperor.

charlemagne s legacy
Charlemagne’s Legacy

Counts- local officials who Charlemagne depended on…..Missi Dominici to spy on the counts.

Education for boys and girls

Carolingian miniscule-form of writing

Raised armies for the emperor

Charlemagne’s three grandsons fought for control of empire and finally agreed in the Treaty of Verdun to divide the Carolingian lands.

treaty of verdum
Treaty of Verdum

Charlemagne’s empire was divided between his grandchildren.

Louis the German-

Charles the Bald- France

Lothair- Italy

vikings terrorized europe
Vikings Terrorized Europe

Raided Ireland to Russia.

Norsemen, Northmen or Vikings

Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, & Denmark)

Eric the Red

Leif Erickson-Newfoundland

Norwegians settled in Greenland an Iceland and North America.

Danes settled in England and established Normandy in northwestern France.

The Swedes settled in present-day Ukraine and Russia.

vikings moved into france
Vikings Moved into France

Normandy-Northern France

vikings age came to an end
Vikings Age Came to an End

Europeans finally worked out a way to defend themselves. Castles

Europeans learned to respond quickly.

Vikings converted to Christianity.

Europe’s climate got warmer.

medieval life
Medieval Life

Feudalism – political system

Manorialism- economic system

Fiefs- Estates with peasants given to the cavalry of Charles Martel in return for their service.

feudalism system
Feudalism System

Mutual alliances between monarchs and nobles. It was based on giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid.


Castles were built to protect the lord and his land.

Origins in early Byzantine Empire

Muslim conquerors of Spain built similar structures.

Spread to France in the 1100’s and were used as private fortresses and homes.

life in castles
Life in Castles

Purpose was for military security

Castles were dark and dingy and not very “warm” and were made of thick stone walls.

Life of Nobility was not luxurious. (Lords, Ladies, and Knights)

lay investiture
Lay Investiture

In the feudal system investiture was the ceremonial transfer of a fief by an overlord to a vassal.

The lord invested the vassal with a fiefdom, by giving a symbol of the land or office conveyed in return for an oath of fealty.

how to become a knight
How to Become a Knight

Knights- train for knighthood at age 7 by becoming a page or assistant.

Squire at age 15 a boy had to prove himself worthy to be a knight.

Chivalry was the code for knights to be brave in battle, fight fairly, and treat noblewoman in a courteous manner.

Tournaments- Mock battles between knights.

Vassals-A person who held land from a feudal lord and received protection in return for homage and allegiance.


Manorialism- System of agricultural production among lords and peasants. The Manor would include the lord’s manor house, pastures, fields, forest, and a village for the peasants to live in. Peasants worked in return for food, shelter, and protection.


Serfs- most peasants were: they were bound to the manor and could not leave without permission. They were not slaves, they could not be sold.

Improvements of farming: heavier plow and dividing plots of land into three instead of two fields and they left one field unplanted.

women during the medieval age
Women During the Medieval Age

The role of women changed.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Limited home or convent

It was in marriage that a woman had the greatest power/ independence

medieval social ladder
Medieval Social Ladder

Medieval society was a hierarchy based on leaders from the top to bottom. Each medieval person’s duties were based on his/her position in life. People did not question their standing in life.







towns in medieval period
Towns in Medieval Period

Fairs- served as centers of trade in Medieval Europe

Attracted merchants form all over the Western Europe.

Held four times a year: winter, Easter, midsummer, and October.

the medieval church
The Medieval Church:

Uniformity- goal of the Medieval church to unify Western Europe Center of most people’s lives during the Medieval Ages was the Catholic Church.

It became the religious support, spiritual guidance, education, medical care and charity of the people.

The Church taught that all people were sinners and they depended on God’s grace or favor through the Sacraments or church rituals.

These seven sacraments are still taught through the Catholic Church.

Baptism, penance, Eucharist, confirmation, matrimony, anointing of the sick, and holy orders.

Latin was the language of the Church and few people understood it.

medieval church
Medieval Church

Priests were uneducated and the people could not read or write, people learned about the Christian faith from the statues and painting on the walls of the churches.

Secular clergy- Latin for “ in the world”; pope, bishops, and priests

Regular clergy- included monks and nuns who lived apart from society.


Benedict- A.D. 529 a Roman official founded a monastery in Monte Cassino in Italy. Model for other monasteries and drew up a list of rules for monks.

Monks- life of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the Abbot.

Nuns – same vows as monks only direction of the Abbess.

monks and nuns
Monks and Nuns

Monks and Nuns preserved ancient religious works, copied classical books by hand, illuminated manuscripts books, provided schools, hospitals, food, guest houses for travelers, and missionaries.

interesting fact
Interesting Fact….

Pretzel – creation of medieval monks to give to children as rewards for memorizing prayers. Latin for “Pretiola”, or small reward. The shape represented the folded arms of children in prayer.

catholic church wanted reform
Catholic Church Wanted Reform

Church power got to strong and the Church would appoint special church positions to nobles who have helped them.

Christians wanted reform!!!

Cardinals-all future popes would be elected by leading bishops.

reforms that were made
Reforms that were made

Political leaders used to vote for the pope, now a group of cardinals would elect one.

The Pope is elected by a gathering of cardinals call a “conclave”.

They meet no later than the 20th day after the death of a pope. They vote secretly for a a 2/3 majority on a candidate.

showdown with a pope and king
Showdown with a Pope and King

Pope Gregory VII – reform – minded people elected in 1073

Proposed the practice of Lay Investiture in which secular rulers gave the symbols of office, such as a ring to the bishops they had appointed.

tools that the church used
Tools that the church used. . .

Pope Innocent III- stopped the spread of heresy, or the denial of basic church teaching, and threatened the heretics with excommunication, or expulsion from the church.

Interdict- no religious ceremonies in that Nations.

pope gregory vii
Pope Gregory VII

Pope Gregory VII clashed with Henry IV

Banned all married priests.

Banned lay investiture

Henry IV called the Pope Gregory VII names.

Pope Gregory VII Excommunication Henry

1077 Henry IV begged forgiveness

Concordant of Worms-Church would grant a bishop His ring.

weapons the pope could use
Weapons the Pope could use:

Inquisition – Church set up a court in 1232 to punish heretics.

Heretic is someone who goes against god.

Friars- reformers of the Church, wandering preachers who followed the rules of the monastery but lived among the people and preached Christianity to them.

The Jews- the most powerful source of anti- Semitism during the Middle Ages was the way the Christian doctrine was interpreted. Many Church leaders and others blamed the Jews for Jesus’ death.

Guilds- skilled labor, had to be Christian.

No Jews allowed.

the rise of european monarchy
The Rise of European Monarchy


Alfred the Great- united the Anglo- Saxon kingdoms and defeated the Danes in 866. His kingdom became known as England.

William Duke of Normandy wanted the English throne-fought against Harold Godwinson.


Henry II – William’s grandson who set up the system of common law, grand jury, and a petit jury.

Eleanor of Aquitaine – wife of Henry and she owned vast lands in southwestern France. Sons were Richard I ( the lionhearted) and John.

magna carta
Magna Carta

Magna Carta – Balanced power in government, placed clear limits on royal power and bound the king to law. Example: the king could no longer collect taxes without the people’s consent. It also assured all freemen the right of trial by jury.

king john of england
King John of England

John- un-liked and unpopular because he increased the taxes and punished enemies without a trial. Nobles forced him to sign the Magna Carta

english government
English Government

Parliament – Knights, burgesses (townspeople) were added to the Great Council that advised King Henry III.

1400 Parliament divided into two chambers.

House of Lords – nobles and clergy

House of Commons – knights and burgesses

Estates- general- assembly of nobles, clergy, and townspeople but was never as powerful as the English Parliament started by Louis IX’s grandson, Philip IV.
the crusades
The Crusades

Series of military expeditions undertaken by European Christians to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims.

1050-1270 A.D.

Jerusalem- Holy city for Jews, Christians, & Muslims, the city fell to the Arabs.

Pope Urban II in 1096 called for a Crusade

crusader s goals
Crusader’s Goals

Pope goal- unite all Christians (Byzantine & Rome)

Knights goal- Forgiveness sins ( glory & wealth)

Merchants goal- trade ( Genoa, Piza, Venice)

first crusades
First Crusades

Caused tension among the Christians and non Christians.

Crusaders massacred most of the Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem in 1099.

second crusade
Second Crusade

50 years after the First Crusade the Seljuk Turks conquered part of the Crusader states. They were not successful


In 1187 he united the Muslim forces & captured Jerusalem.

Third Crusades started by the rulers of Germany, France, & England.

results of the crusades
Results of the Crusades

All forces of religion, feudalism, & chivalry got together.

New trade Europe, Middle East, & Asia

New spices, technology

End of the Middle Ages

New inventions.

The crusades helped to speed up the changes that were already in play.

chapter 14
Chapter 14

Early merchants used the Barber system:

The money economy replaced it.

This led to the development of banking.

Serfs-began to buy their freedom feudalism declined.

bubonic plague
Bubonic Plague

Black Death killed Europeans from 1348-1350.

25% of Europeans died.

Cause of the plague?

The Black Plague was caused by infected rodents carrying the virus.

“Grim Reaper”

The first symptoms of the bubonic plague often appear within several days:

headache and a general feeling of weakness, followed by aches and chills in the upper leg and groin, a white coating on the tongue rapid pulse, slurred speech, confusion, fatigue, apathy and a staggering gait. A blackish pustule usually will form at the point of the flea bite. By the third day, the lymph nodes begin to swell. The swelling will be tender, perhaps as large as an egg. The heart begins to flutter rapidly as it tries to pump blood through swollen, suffocating tissues Subcutaneous hemorrhaging occurs, causing purplish blotches on the skin. The victims nervous system begins to collapse, causing dreadful pain and bizarre neurological disorders, from which the "Dance of Death" rituals that accompanied the plague may have taken their inspiration. By the fourth or fifth day, wild anxiety and terror overtake the sufferer-and then a sense of resignation, as the skin blackens and the rictus of death settles on the body (Smithsonian, 70).

Ring Around the Rosie”

This nursery rhyme began about 1347 and derives from the not-so-delightful Black Plague

which killed over twenty-five million people in the fourteenth century. The "ring around a rosie" refers to the round, red rash that is the first symptom of the disease. The practice of carrying flowers and placing them around the infected person for protection is described in the phrase, "a pocket full of posies." "Ashes" is a corruption or imitation of the sneezing sounds made by the infected person. Finally, "we all fall down" describes the many dead resulting from the disease.

This nursery rhyme

thomas aquinas
Thomas Aquinas

Most important scholastic thinker.

He claimed that reason existed in harmony with faith.

medieval education
Medieval Education

Universities spread the advancement of literature and art.

One of the earliest literary works was “Beowulf”

Arabs- had established universities 200 years earlier than the Europeans.


1100’s traveling poet-musicians who composed poems and songs about love and the accomplishments of knights.

Romance referred to the narratives written in the Vernacular.

Vernacular- everyday language or speech.

hundred years war 1337 1453
Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453

England and France fought a series of conflicts. Reason) The English tried to keep the French lands that they had received from the Normans.


hundred years war
Hundred Years’ War

Conflict began when the England’s Edward III claimed the French crown.

The English were successful at first because they had weapons of firearm and the longbow.

joan of arc 1412 1431
Joan of Arc 1412-1431

She believe to hear voices- telling her to save France.

dauphin gain the French throne

She is considered the First French hero.

Maid of Orleans

She was captured and burned to a stake.

joan of arc
Joan of Arc

Joan heard a voices telling her to place Charles VL”s son on the throne.

Dauphin- french term for crown prince

Reims-Charles VII was crowned

Joan was captured and burned at the stake.

Gabella- tax on salt


results of the hundred years war
Results of the Hundred Years War

Knights are outdated (old school)

Kings replaced knights with national armies.

England monarch’s power was limited by Parliament.

Conflict arose between the English nobility for control of the throne.

war of the roses
War of the Roses

Rose symbols of the rival families involved.

House of York—white rose

House of Lancaster- red rose

Edward, Duke of York, became King Edward IV.

At the time of his death, two brothers were given the throne.

Their uncle Richard proclaimed himself King.

Uncle Richard had his nephews murdered.

Henry Tudor, conquered Richard, became the first Tudor King.

spain 1469
Spain 1469

Made up of Portugal in the west.

Castile in the center.

Aragon on the Mediterranean coast.

Granada-in the south were in the hands of the Muslims. (moors)

king ferdinand of aragon queen isabella of castile
King Ferdinand of AragonQueen Isabella of Castile

1492 Both Ferdinand and Isabella kicked out the Muslims from Spain.

Spain use the Spanish Inquisition to enforced Catholic teachings.


the holy roman empire
The Holy Roman Empire

During the Middle Ages it was made up of German, Italian, and Slavs.

The Hapsburgs- a family of nobles in Austria.

They will become the most powerful European royal family.

the great schism 1377
The Great Schism 1377

Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome form Avignon.

Mobs of people forced the College of Cardinals to elect an Italian pope.

They elected a second pope-who settled in Avignon.

Two popes now led the church.

1414 another council met in Germany –forced the two popes to resign.

Pope Martin V was elected the new pope.

pope statements
Pope statements

Bulls- official statement from the pope.

Unam Sanctam- a pope statement that there were only two powers:


Spiritual- heavenly

john wycliffe
John Wycliffe

Englishman Wycliffe

True head of the church was Jesus Christ, not the pope.

Priests should not own land or wealth.

Bible only authority not the pope.

Translated the New Testament in English.

jan hus
Jan Hus

Hus Bohemia

He argued that the Bible was the only way to seek God.

He was declared a Heretic and burned at the stake.

moscow s princes united russia
Moscow’s princes united Russia

Moscow- Volga, Dnieper, and Con Rivers

Ivan I “Great Prince

Kremlin- Fortress or citadel

Ural Mountains

Boyars- princes

Ivan the Terrible

study guide for chapter 14
Study Guide for Chapter 14

Henry II

Richard the Lionhearted




Henry Tudor

War of the Roses


Joan of Arc

Ivan the Terrible


Hundred Years War





Great Schism

John Hus

Bubonic Plague

John Wycliffe

Estates General

King John

Magna Carta


Unam Sanctam