Constantinople • Strategic City-on a peninsula, Constantinople overlooked the Bosporus, the narrow strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. • Water protected the city from the Germanic invaders. • The strait made it perfect for trade.
Geography of Byzantine • Mediterranean Sea • Balkan Peninsula • Russia • Black Sea • Caucasus Mountains
Rome and Byzantine The Roman empire divided in A.D. 395. The eastern half became known as Byzantine Empire. Constantinople is the perfect location between Europe and Asia. Constantinople is the capital of the “Eastern Rome”.
What made the Byzantine Empire rich and powerful? Strong imperial leadership Strategic location of its capital. Successful military conquest. Strong ties to church
Emperor Justinian Emperor Justinian – Ruled the Byzantine Empire at its height in A.D. 527. Justinian tried to restore the old Roman Empire ( it was very expensive) Theodora- wife, empress was very intelligent. She helped to shape his polices. She built homes for poor and helped the status of women.
Justinian’s Code Corpus Juris Civilis: 1. Digest 2. Code 3. Institutes
Justinian Code of Law Corpus of Civil Law- Justinian reformed the Roman Laws and appointed a commission to organize and classify the laws. Later the Justinian Code became the basis for most European legal system.
Justinian Rule Justinian was plagued by attacks by the Persians and the Germanic invaders. (Ostrogoths in Italy and Spain, Visigoth is Southern Spain and the Lombard in Northern Italy.)
Hagia Sophia Emperor Justinian chose two Greek mathematicians to design. Combines Greek balance and proportion with Roman engineering skills. The Church is a vast rectangle and in the center is a huge dome. The dome seems to look like it is floating in the heavens.
Byzantine Religion Byzantine Emperors appointed Church officials and used the wealth of the Church for government purpose. Justinian tried to unify the Church under one Christian faith, this led to persecution of the Jews and non- Greek Christians.
Religious structure Clergy- Church people, priest, ministers etc… Laity- Church goers, people that go to church. Conflicts over use of Icons- Some argued that the Bible prohibits such images and others said they were symbols of God’s presence in human affairs.
Icons Disputes Emperor Leo- (A.D. 726) Believed icons encouraged superstitions and the worship of idols. His supporters became known as Iconoclast or image breakers.
Icon The word icon is Greek for “image”. In Byzantine art the image on an icon is of a holy person.
Conflicts between Byzantine Emperors and the Pope of Roman Refusal to help Pope with military protection against the Germanic Lombard’s in Italy. The Pope then turned to the Franks, Germanic Catholic people in Western Europe. The Pope gave Charlemagne, the leader of the Franks, the title of emperor. Schism - Separation
Schism • 1054 A.D. doctrinal, political, and geographical differences finally led to a schism. Split of the Christian church: Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox.
Chapter 11-13 Test Carolinian Miniscule Clovis Battle of Tours Viking William the Conquer Cardinals Serfs Fiefs Feudalism Excommunication Saldein Curia Pope Urban II Battle of Hastings Henry II Chivalry Charlemagne Magna Carta Heresy Inquisition Interdict vassals
Middle Ages (Between Dark Ages and Renaissance) Ch.13 Frankish Rulers
Medieval Age Germanic invasions destroyed the Roman Empire by A.D. 476 Dark Age- trade declined, money was no longer used, law and order did not exist, education almost disappeared. ( Transition between ancient and modern times.) Franks- Clovis was king of the Franks who settled in France and Western Germany. Clovis was the first Frankish ruler to accept Catholicism. Louis
Merovingian Rulers Frankish rulers divided the kingdom among their heirs until the political power had passed from the kings to the government officials known as mayor of the palace.
Charles Martel Charles Martel- Mayor of the Palace in A.D. 714, he had defeated the Muslims and gained much respect. Battle of Tours
Pepin the Short Pepin the Short- son of Charles Martel became King of the Franks in A.D. 752. The pope anointed Pepin and had the Church’s blessing. Pepin forced the Lombard's out of Rome. He then gave the pope a piece of land in central Italy. Papal States
Charlemagne- son of Pepin the Short became king in A.D. 768. Charlemagne is one of Europe’s greatest monarchs. He started the Carolingian dynasty. He doubled the Frankish kingdom and reinstated law and education of the Old Roman days. Charlemagne
Charlemagne’s Coronation Pope Leo III – Charlemagne defended him against the Roman nobles. To thank him, the pope, crowned Charlemagne the New Holy Roman Emperor.
Charlemagne’s Legacy Counts- local officials who Charlemagne depended on…..Missi Dominici to spy on the counts. Education for boys and girls Carolingian miniscule-form of writing Raised armies for the emperor Charlemagne’s three grandsons fought for control of empire and finally agreed in the Treaty of Verdun to divide the Carolingian lands.
Treaty of Verdum Charlemagne’s empire was divided between his grandchildren. Louis the German- Charles the Bald- France Lothair- Italy
Vikings Terrorized Europe Raided Ireland to Russia. Norsemen, Northmen or Vikings Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, & Denmark) Eric the Red Leif Erickson-Newfoundland
Norwegians settled in Greenland an Iceland and North America. Danes settled in England and established Normandy in northwestern France. The Swedes settled in present-day Ukraine and Russia.
Vikings Moved into France Normandy-Northern France
Vikings Age Came to an End Europeans finally worked out a way to defend themselves. Castles Europeans learned to respond quickly. Vikings converted to Christianity. Europe’s climate got warmer.
Medieval Life Feudalism – political system Manorialism- economic system Fiefs- Estates with peasants given to the cavalry of Charles Martel in return for their service.
Feudalism System Mutual alliances between monarchs and nobles. It was based on giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid.