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  1. Genetics Review Honors Human Anatomy & Physiology Mr. Mazza 2009-10

  2. Why review genetics in a course on anatomy & physiology? Genes control the layout, make-up and function of the bodies of all organisms. Examples of traits influenced by genes: • Appearance (hair, skin, eyes, height, etc.) • Body structure of an organism • Susceptibility to diseases • Personality traits • Behavior (instincts as well as other behaviors) *Environment interacts with genes to produce the final phenotype (physical trait)

  3. Where do your genes come from? 50% of your genes from dad 50% of your genes from mom

  4. It’s the stuff that genes are made of: DNA • made of 4 nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine) • A pairs with T; C pairs with G • Each gene is a unique sequence of the 4 bases

  5. CHROMOSOME DNA gene

  6. What information do genes contain? • Each gene on the DNA is an instruction to build a protein • Proteins are the main structural components of the body (bones, muscle, skin, hair, nails, blood vessels, organs, etc.) and regulate all chemical reactions in the body

  7. Human Karyotype

  8. From Genes to Proteins

  9. How a protein is made Transcription (making of RNA) mRNA (has copy of DNA information) DNA ribosomes Translation (making of a protein) protein

  10. The Genetic Code Each protein is made of amino acids - every 3 bases is a codon (code) for one amino acid

  11. mutation A change in the genetic code Flow of genetic information in a cell (Central dogma of molecular biology): DNA RNA PROTEIN Mutated DNA Mutated RNA Defective protein

  12. Why is this important? • Our susceptibility to any disease is affected by the variations of genes we inherit from our parents and/or mutations we get via the environment (i.e. radiation, chemical exposure, etc.)