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DNA Chapter 10. The Code of Life. History Griffith Hershey and Chase Chargaff Linus Pauling Maurice Wilkins Rosalind Franklin Francis Crick James Watson. Model Double Helix Building Blocks-Nucleotides Sugar-Deoxyribose Phosphate Nitrogen Base. Types of Nitrogen Bases.

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Dna chapter 10

DNA Chapter 10

The Code of Life


HistoryGriffithHershey and ChaseChargaffLinus Pauling Maurice WilkinsRosalind FranklinFrancis CrickJames Watson


Model double helix building blocks nucleotides sugar deoxyribose phosphate nitrogen base
ModelDouble HelixBuilding Blocks-NucleotidesSugar-DeoxyribosePhosphateNitrogen Base


Types of nitrogen bases
Types of Nitrogen Bases

Pyrimidines and Purines


thymine cytosine adenine guanine

pyrm


Hydrogen bonds between bases hold the strands together

Hydrogen bonds between bases hold the strands together

Each base pairs with a complementary partner

A pairs with T

G pairs with C



DNA is made up of building blocks called nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of a phosphate, a sugar (deoxyribose) and a nitrogen base.


There are two kinds of bases-purines(adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines(cytosine and thymine). Purines have a double ringed structure and pyrimidines have a single ringed structure.


A pairs with T and they join with a double hydrogen bond and C pairs with G and they join with a triple bond. DNA is anti-parallel. Its structure is called a double helix.


In DNA replication, the strands separate. C pairs with G and they join with a triple bond. DNA is anti-parallel. Its structure is called a double helix.Enzymes use each strand as a template to assemble the new strands


Dna replication begins at specific sites
DNA replication begins at specific sites C pairs with G and they join with a triple bond. DNA is anti-parallel. Its structure is called a double helix.



Dna replication
DNA Replication direction

  • Where? Nucleus

  • When? before cell division so that each cell can have a complete set of instructions

  • What? DNA, free nucleotides, enzymes and energy

  • Enzymes (helicases) unwind the DNA. Then it unzips beginning in the middle-points of origin.

  • Free DNA nucleotides come in and join with complimentary base on each strand.


Enzymes join the sides of the new DNA strands. directionEach strand is half old and half new. Thus this process is semi-conservative.


RNA vs DNA directionRibose-deoxyriboseRNA is single stranded and DNA is double strandedUracil instead of thymine



The “words” of the DNA “language” are triplets of bases called codons.The codons in a gene specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.



Transcription
Transcription bases called codons.

  • Where? Nucleus

  • Why? DNA wants to send out a message.

  • What? DNA, free RNA nucleotides, enzymes and energy

  • First, a section (gene) of DNA unzips.

  • Then RNA nucleotides come in and join with the template side of the DNA.

  • Enzymes join the RNA nucleotides and the RNA pulls away and leaves the nucleus.

  • DNA zips back up.


Mrna editing

mRNA Editing bases called codons.

Exons-left in

Introns-cut out



Translation protein synthesis

Translation (Protein Synthesis) bases called codons.

Where? At a ribosome in the cytoplasm

What? enzymes and energy, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, amino acids


Transfer rna molecules serve as interpreters during translation
Transfer RNA molecules serve as interpreters during translation

  • In the cytoplasm, a ribosome attaches to the mRNA and translates its message into a polypeptide

  • The process is aided by transfer RNAs


Each tRNA molecule has a triplet anticodon on one end and an amino acid attachment site on the other


Ribosomes rrna
Ribosomes (rRNA) amino acid attachment site on the other



Translation
Translation during initiation

First a small ribosomal subunit joins mRNA at a start codon-AUG. The appropriate tRNA comes to join the mRNA. Large ribosomal sub unit joins. Another tRNA comes bringing the correct amino acid with it. A peptide bond forms between the amino acids, and the 1st tRNA leaves.


Translation1
Translation during initiation

  • First a small ribosomal subunit joins mRNA at a start codon-AUG.

  • The appropriate tRNA comes to join the mRNA. Large ribosomal sub unit joins.

  • Another tRNA comes bringing the correct amino acid with it. A peptide bond forms between the amino acids, and the 1st tRNA leaves.


This continues until a stop codon (UGA, UAG, UAA) is reached. Then all break apart and a polypeptide is released.


Mutations
Mutations reached. Then all break apart and a polypeptide is released.

  • Good, bad, or who cares?

  • Substitution-redundancy

  • Deletion or Insertion

  • Frameshift


Spontaneous mutagens high energy radiation x rays uv light chemicals
Spontaneous reached. Then all break apart and a polypeptide is released.MutagensHigh energy radiation X rays, UV lightChemicals


Viruses dna or rna in a protein coat

Viruses-DNA or RNA in a protein coat reached. Then all break apart and a polypeptide is released.

RNA viruses-retroviruses

Reverse transcriptase

Lytic cycle

Lysogenic


Viruses of concern
Viruses of concern reached. Then all break apart and a polypeptide is released.

  • Ebola

  • Hanta

  • HIV

  • Avian (Bird) flu

  • Influenza 203

  • AIDS 205


Differentiation

Differentiation reached. Then all break apart and a polypeptide is released.



Colon Cancer division.



Gel electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis division.

Separates fragments by their size


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