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Working organizational issues: The six modes of change. MPA 8002 The Structure and Theory of Human Organization Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D. Creating Paths of Change (McWhinney, Webber, Smith, & Novokowsky, 1997). Asserts that organization change begins first with self-change.

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Working organizational issues the six modes of change l.jpg

Working organizational issues:The six modes of change

MPA 8002

The Structure and Theory of Human Organization

Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.


Creating paths of change mcwhinney webber smith novokowsky 1997 l.jpg
Creating Paths of Change(McWhinney, Webber, Smith, & Novokowsky, 1997)

  • Asserts that organization change begins first with self-change...

…that is, if manager/leaders are to initiate organizational change, they first must understand how they view the world

…because how individuals view reality is a critical element in how they formulate a decision (p. 3)


An organizational issue l.jpg
An organizational “issue”...

  • A fundamental conflict of values embedded in and provoking those recurring organizational problems as people attempt to define the issue

…what Gallie (1968) calls “essentially contested concepts”


Managing and leading l.jpg
Managing and leading...

  • involves “working”...

problems

issue

as

resolutions

as

solution

...not “reframing” (Bolman & Deal, 1997)


Slide5 l.jpg

virtue

not

technique

character

not

expertise


Slide6 l.jpg

management and leadership density

subservient and acquiescent functionaries

not


The four views of reality l.jpg
The four views of reality...

Unitary

Sensory

Social

Mythic


The six modes of change how to work problematic situations l.jpg
The six modes of change: How to “work” problematic situations...

analytic

inve ntive

assertive

evaluative

influential

emergent


The analytic mode of change and its directions l.jpg
The analytic mode of change and its directions... situations...

analytic

unitary

sensory

To put theory

and policy

into action

To use data

to interpret a

situation

design

test


The analytic mode of change l.jpg
The analytic mode of change... situations...

  • is based on the observation of principles and facts

  • depends on the power of reason

  • utilizes theory and sensory information to identify solutions, predict implications, and provide the basis for evaluation


The evaluative mode of change and its directions l.jpg
The evaluative mode of change and its directions... situations...

To elicit

what matters

in a situation

sensory

value

evaluative

To designate

and assign

resources and

responsibilities

allocate

social


The evaluative mode of change l.jpg
The evaluative mode of change... situations...

  • is based on determining or assigning values

  • depends on exploration and shared involvement to develop a value consensus, resolve issues, and initiate actions


The emergent mode of change and its directions l.jpg
The emergent mode of change and its directions... situations...

To get others

to value an

idea

To co-create

ideas or

images that

reflect values

facilitate

evoke

social

mythic

emergent


The emergent mode of change l.jpg
The emergent mode of change... situations...

  • is based on facilitating social interaction, creating or co-creating ideas or symbols and revaluing ideas

  • depends on creating and gaining acceptance for an idea or symbol to create new meaning, making possible alternative actions and outcomes, and transcending existing conflicts and limitations


The assertive mode of change and its directions l.jpg
The assertive mode of change and its directions... situations...

To mobilize

energy

around a

symbol or

belief system

unitary

inspire

assertive

To develop

policies that

express a

vision

establish

mythic


The assertive mode of change l.jpg
The assertive mode of change... situations...

  • is based on personal authority, establishing truth, or interpreting existing systems of beliefs

  • depends on a charismatic leader or an agent of authority to separate the acceptable from the unacceptable, replace confusion with clarity, or establish rules of conduct that will eliminate problem behavior


The influential mode of change and its directions l.jpg
The influential mode of change and its directions... situations...

To convert

group to an

established

truth

unitary

influential

convert

social

To change

policies to

reflect a

group’s

values

persuade


The influential mode of change l.jpg
The influential mode of change... situations...

  • is based on the preferences people hold, by changing or establishing those preferences

  • depends on the interplay of values and principles to change moral and ethical positions and values

  • imposes truth by authority or establishes new rules of behavior from the value position of individuals


The inventive mode of change and its directions l.jpg
The inventive mode of change and its directions... situations...

To create an

idea that

brings clarity

and meaning

to a situation

sensory

inventive

induce

To put an

idea into

practice

mythic

realize


The inventive mode of change l.jpg
The inventive mode of change... situations...

  • is based on the material world as people rearrange objects and ideas that are available but that have not been accessed

  • depends on making an idea tangible, creating new concepts to make something, moving, destroying, or transforming what is not a solution into something that is


In practice episodes views of reality reveal patterns of views l.jpg
In practice episodes, views of reality reveal patterns of views...

  • Typically, people exhibit several views of reality:

dominant

balanced

active focus

avoidant

…the important point is that a balanced view is optimal; the other views possess positive (to be emphasized) and negative attributes (to be avoided).


With regard to managing leading an organization l.jpg
With regard to managing/leading an organization... views...

  • Individuals who view reality through a single perspective tend not to be effective as leaders or as agents of change...

…but, learning to use several frames (Bolman & Deal, 1997) or images (Morgan, 1997) appears to enhance an individual’s ability to diagnose the complexities impacting the organizational reality.


Slide23 l.jpg

…that is, an individual’s typical choice when utilizing one of the six modes of change (p. 42) to engage others in “working the problems” toward resolution.


The analytic mode of working problems l.jpg
The analytic mode of working problems... involves a “style” (McWhinney,

unitary

sensory

Leadership role and focus:

To exercise power in a logical way to achieve established goals

Organizing

style:

Tasks arranged in a meritocratic hierarchy

Explicit responsibilities, time, and resource assignments

Planning

Style:

Referee disputes, solve problems, and move forward

Conflict

management:


The evaluate mode of working problems l.jpg
The evaluate mode of working problems... involves a “style” (McWhinney,

social

sensory

Leadership role and focus:

To allocate and align resources properly to optimize outcomes

Organizing

style:

Functionally responsive to the participants’ desires

Optimization by equalizing the assignment of work and benefits over time

Planning

Style:

Negotiate with participants to identify win-win values and to inculturate them

Conflict

management:


The emergent mode of working problems l.jpg
The emergent mode of working problems... involves a “style” (McWhinney,

social

mythic

Leadership role and focus:

To co-create valued images using the participants’ energy and skills

Organizing

style:

Functionally open and flexible as well as socially supportive

Expansive, search-oriented efforts to seize advantages afforded by opportunities

Planning

Style:

Explore possible solutions by creatively reframing rather than solving problems

Conflict

management:


The assertive mode of working problems l.jpg
The assertive mode of working problems... involves a “style” (McWhinney,

unitary

mythic

Leadership role and focus:

To establish a mission authoritatively; to exhort loyalty to the leader and mission

Organizing

style:

Charismatic and inspirational evolving toward a bureaucracy

Autocratic, based on leader’s long-term vision

Planning

Style:

Establish a solution or creatively redefine issue

Conflict

management:


The influential mode of working problems l.jpg
The influential mode of working problems... involves a “style” (McWhinney,

social

unitary

Leadership role and focus:

To work politically to effect policies that enable the organization to attain its goals

Organizing

style:

Patriarchal or oligarchic with an emphasis upon committees

Protects the power-value status quo by maintaining or radically reforming the game

Planning

Style:

Mediate disputes to solidify the power base around established and valued positions

Conflict

management:


The inventive mode of working problems l.jpg
The inventive mode of working problems... involves a “style” (McWhinney,

mythic

sensory

Leadership role and focus:

To materialize one’s personal visions in the real world

Organizing

style:

Charismatic and evolving toward a task hierarchy

Highly flexible with a strong achievement drive

Planning

Style:

Destroy power base of opposition; stress group goal in order to subordinate dispute

Conflict

management:


Slide30 l.jpg

…because group members possess different views of reality that can facilitate or inhibit change.


Slide31 l.jpg

…“The ultimate leader has access to all leadership styles and has the wisdom to know when to employ each” (McWhinney et al., 1997, p. 44).


The interactions of leader and member realities l.jpg
The interactions of leader and member realities... appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

Managerial/leadership reality

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

FOLLOWER

unconstructive

FOLLOWER

unconstructive

sensory

Team member’s reality

COLLEAGUE

acquiescent

unconstructive

INDEPENDENT

social

unwilling follower

reactive

involved

TEAM MEMBER

mythic

user

user

learner

INDEPENDENT


Particularly pure constructive matches l.jpg
Particularly (pure) constructive matches... appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

Managerial/leadership reality

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

This individual experiences certitude, that is, unless other team members express fear that the leader’s beliefs are heretical.

FOLLOWER

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

mythic


Slide34 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

This individual strongly supports a charismatic leader’s efforts but strongly opposes calls for radical change.

FOLLOWER

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

mythic


Slide35 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

This individual gives authority to the leader based upon the leader’s expertise not the person of the leader.

sensory

Team member’s reality

COLLEAGUE

social

mythic


Slide36 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

This individual is uncommitted, but will use any opportunities provided to advance self-interest.

sensory

Team member’s reality

INDEPENDENT

social

mythic


Slide37 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

sensory

Team member’s reality

This individual uses organizational resources to achieve personal self-interests. A mythic individual is likely to respect a strong sensory leader.

social

mythic

INDEPENDENT


Slide38 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

sensory

Team member’s reality

This individual trusts the leader, cooperates with the leader, and has good communication with the leader.

social

TEAM MEMBER

mythic


Particularly pure unconstructive matches l.jpg
Particularly (pure) unconstructive matches... appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

Managerial/leadership reality

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

unconstructive

This individual has little respect for the leader, ignores and passively blocks most change efforts.

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

mythic


Slide40 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

unconstructive

This individual disrespects the leader unless both share common values. This individual is threatened by social values.

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

mythic


Slide41 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

This individual accepts power and rules as long as they work.

sensory

Team member’s reality

acquiescent

social

mythic


Slide42 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

This individual has low regard for the leader, to the point of ignoring the leader’s ideas and values.

sensory

Team member’s reality

unconstructive

social

mythic


Slide43 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

sensory

Team member’s reality

This negative individual usually reacts to and counters leadership efforts.

social

reactive

mythic


Slide44 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

sensory

Team member’s reality

This individual has low regard for the leader. This individual oftentimes goes along while attempting to educate the leader.

social

unwilling follower

mythic


Slide45 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

This individual opposes the leader, unless the leader is strongly facilitative. In this instance, this individual will strongly support the leader.

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

involved

mythic


Slide46 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

This individual uses the leader as a channel to power or as a front for the individual’s self-interests.

mythic

user


Slide47 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

This individual uses the leader as a support for one’s own development.

mythic

user


Slide48 l.jpg

Managerial/leadership reality appropriate style with the group member’s views of reality...

unitary

sensory

social

mythic

unitary

sensory

Team member’s reality

social

This individual does not follow the leader but, due to a love/hate relationship, learns from the leader.

mythic

learner


Slide49 l.jpg

…increases the probability of conflict due to the diversity of skills, curiosity levels, and personal openness to change

…people tend to stop learning if fear and interpersonal conflict decrease one’s trust and willingness to accept direction


This module has focused on l.jpg
This module has focused on... team members have varied views of reality

The six modes of change by which managers/leaders “work the organizational issue” by enabling followers to “work the organizational problems”...


References l.jpg
References team members have varied views of reality

  • Emery, F. E., & Trist, E. L. (1965). The causal texture of organizational environments. Human Relations, 18, 21-32.

  • Gallie, W. B. (1968). Philosophy and the historical understanding. New York: Schocken Books.

  • Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. (1967). Organization and environment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.

  • Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. New York: Harper & Row.


Slide52 l.jpg

  • Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture. team members have varied views of realityAmerican Psychologist, 45(2), 109-119.

  • Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Sergiovanni, T. J. (1986). Understanding reflective practice. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 1(4), 353-359.

  • Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.


Slide53 l.jpg

  • Simon, H. A. (1945/1997). team members have varied views of realityAdministrative behavior: A study of decision-making processes in administrative organizations. New York: The Free Press.

  • Weick, K. E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

  • Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.


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