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Understanding. Sept 11. Supercourse A project designed to create a free lecture library of PowerPoint prevention slides, 9212 Academic Faculty from 120 countries with over 800 available Free Powerpoint Lectures. Terrorism. What is it? Where does it come from?

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A project designed to create a free lecture library of PowerPoint prevention slides, 9212 Academic Faculty from 120 countries with over 800 available Free

Powerpoint Lectures



What is it?

Where does it come from?

Why is it used?

How can we prevent it?

What do we fear about Terrorism?

  • Is an unlawful act of violence
  • Intimidates governments or societies
  • Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives

Arthur H. Garrison


“Putting the horror in the minds of the audience, and not necessarily on the screen”

“…warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities;

terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point”NYTimes, 1/6/2000


Educational Deterence

Fear always springs from ignorance.

Emerson, 1837

early history of terrorism
Early History of Terrorism
  • Terror has been used to achieve political ends and has a long history
    • As early as 66 – 72 A.D. Resistance to Roman occupation, terrorists killed Roman soldiers and destroyed Roman property.
  • Terror was used to resist occupation.

Arthur H. Garrison

early history of terrorism12
Early History of Terrorism
  • Suicidal martyrdom represented being killed by invaders which resulted in rewards in heaven. It dates back thousands of years in most societies and religions.
  • Terrorism against the enemy is often viewed as a religious act.

Arthur H. Garrison

modern history of terrorism
Modern History of Terrorism
  • The term “terrorism” was coined in the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror (1793 – 1794). .
  • This was the birth of Government-Sponsored Terrorism
  • The line between terrorism and political violence is often blurred
  • Goal: of State terrorism was to eliminate opposition, consolidate power, e.g., the Vanished in Argentina

Arthur H. Garrison

modern history of terrorism14
Modern History of Terrorism
  • Anarchists were seen in the late 19th century
  • Individual terrorism
    • The use of selective terror against an individual in order to bring down a government, e.g. Lincoln assassination
  • Propaganda by deeds …terrorists acts
    • Terrorism became tool of communication, propaganda

Arthur H. Garrison

modern history of terrorism15
Modern History of Terrorism:
  • Middle 20th century, terrorism became a tool used by both sides of colonial conflicts.
  • The last 20 years of of the 20th century religious based terrorism became more and more frequent.
  • Another format is economic terrorism, which destructs industry and agriculture system.

Arthur H. Garrison

modern history of terrorism16
Modern History of Terrorism
  • Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare.
    • Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage. (Allen, 1997).
    • The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat (Craig, 1998).

Arthur H. Garrison

terrorism conclusions
Terrorism conclusions
  • Terrorism is an ancienttactic.
  • Terrorism is a mode of communication.
  • Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare.
  • Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war.
  • Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear.
  • Terrorism is a political act.

Arthur H. Garrison


Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack

Terrorism takes much

Time and planning


5 years

Execution 1 day

Diagnosed case 3 days

First Death

Multiple deaths

property of terrorism
Property of Terrorism
  • Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties
  • The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint
  • One person’s terrorist can be another’s fighter
prevention of terrorism
Prevention of Terrorism
  • Primary prevention:
    • Education!!!
    • Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors
    • Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people”
    • Eliminate the root of terrorism
prevention of terrorism21
Prevention of Terrorism
  • Secondary prevention:
    • Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack
    • Improve protective system for citizens
prevention of terrorism22
Prevention of Terrorism
  • Tertiary prevention
    • Early detection of the sources
    • Prevent the extension of impairments
    • Rescue the survivors
    • Console the rest of the population
types of terrorism
Types of Terrorism
  • Domestic terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example.
  • International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an example of International Terrorism.

the Center for National Security Studies

methods of terrorism
Methods of Terrorism
  • Firearms
  • Explosive and Incendiary Devices
  • Chemical Agents
  • Biological Agents
  • Nuclear Weapon

Suspicious Thing to Look for

From Emergency Net NEWS Archives, 1994 Document Courtesy of the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office

chemical agents
Chemical Agents
  • Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people, destroy livestock or ravage crops
  • Some agents are odorless and tasteless
  • They can have an immediate or a delayed effect
example of chemical terrorism
Example of Chemical Terrorism
  • Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo subway system in March 20, 1995
  • 12 people were killed and 53 were seriously injured

Genro Ochi M.D

biological terrorism
Biological terrorism
  • Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror
  • The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages.
  • Microbes
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Toxins

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.

is this something new
Is this something new?
  • 14th Century – Kaffa
    • City on Crimean Peninsula
  • Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.

is this something new30
Is this something new?
  • 18th Century French and Indian War
    • British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French
    • Caused an epidemic in tribes
    • Effective means of incapacitating group

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.

motives for bioterrorism
Motives for bioterrorism

Fred T. Muwanga M.D. Msc

responses to bioterrorism
Responses to Bioterrorism
  • Early detection of active and potential cases
  • Emergency measures to save lives
  • Prevention and management of secondary contamination
nuclear terrorism
Nuclear Terrorism

Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion

Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials

Detonate a nuclear weapon

No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred

risk of dying
Risk of Dying

Penguin Books, 1987

why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001
Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001?
  • The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely low in 1990’s, and was still relatively low compared with some diseases in 2001
  • But the death rate increased by 500 times in 2001 due to Sept. 11
  • Overall the death rate of terrorism has not been high
  • Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear engulfed the United States and world
  • Terrorism is unlawful act
  • Terrorism has a long history of being used to achieve political, religious and ideological objectives
  • Terrorism can be conducted through firearms, explosive devices and biological, chemical, nuclear materials
  • Even through the events of 2001,the risk of dying from terrorism has remained much lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic beverage.

The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.FDR, 1933

Fears are educated into us & can,

if we wish, be educated out. — Karl A. Menninger