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The Object Complement Patterns. Ed McCorduck English 402--Grammar SUNY Cortland http://mccorduck.cortland.edu. slide 2: review of subject complements.

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the object complement patterns
The Object Complement Patterns

Ed McCorduck

English 402--Grammar

SUNY Cortland

http://mccorduck.cortland.edu

slide 2 review of subject complements
slide 2: review of subject complements

As discussed in the “Verb Patterns and the Be Patterns” lecture and in the “Linking Verbs” lecture, a subject complement (subj comp) refers to the same entity as or attributes a property to the subject of a sentence. For example, in the sentences Beelzebub is evil and Beelzebub is a demon, both the adjective evil in the first sentence and the noun phrase a demon in the second refer to their respective subjects, i.e., in both cases Beelzebub. The sentences are likewise diagramed in similar ways with the headwords of these subject complements on the main line as the verb and separated from it by a slanted line:

English 402: Grammar

slide 4 definition of object complements
slide 4: definition of object complements

Similarly, direct objects can also be followed by slots whose occupants co-refer to the same entity as the object. Words and phrases that can fill these slots are called object complements (obj comp).

English 402: Grammar

slide 5 pattern ix
slide 5: Pattern IX

Pattern IX

NP1 V-tr NP2 ADJ

(subj) (predvb) (dir obj) (obj comp)

in this pattern, the ADJ refers to the same entity as the NP2

English 402: Grammar

slide 6 examples of pattern ix sentences
slide 6: examples of Pattern IX sentences

exx

I | consider | that | ridiculous. (cf. That is ridiculous)

NP1 V-tr NP2 ADJ

She | likes | her men | hot. (cf. Her men are hot)

NP1 V-tr NP2 ADJ

Catnip | drives | my little kitties | absolutely nuts.

NP1 V-tr NP2 ADJ

English 402: Grammar

slide 7 pattern x
slide 7: Pattern X

Pattern X

NP1 V-tr NP2 NP2

(subj) (predvb) (dir obj) (obj comp)

in this pattern, the second NP2 functions as object complement, i.e., it has the same referent as the direct object

English 402: Grammar

slide 8 examples of pattern x sentences
slide 8: examples of Pattern X sentences

exx

I | consider | him | a nutjob. (cf. He is a nutjob)

NP1 V-tr NP2 NP2

They | called | it | the greatest thing since sliced bread.

NP1 V-tr NP2NP2

The club | has named | Ebeneezer| (the) treasurer.

NP1 V-tr NP2NP2

English 402: Grammar

slide 9 verbs that can appear in pattern ix and or pattern x sentences
slide 9: verbs that can appear in Pattern IX and/or Pattern X sentences

Other verbs that can occur in Pattern IX and X sentences (sometimes in only one of the patterns or the other) are find, elect, leave, make and prefer.

English 402: Grammar

slide 10 reed kellogg diagrams of sentences with object complements
slide 10: Reed-Kellogg diagrams of sentences with object complements

In Reed-Kellogg diagrams, object complements are indicated like subject complements, i.e., their headwords occur on the main line preceded by a slant line, but because these complements modify not the subject but the direct object they always immediately follow the direct object (as they do in surface structure). As an illustration, here is the diagram of the sentence I consider that ridiculous where the adjective ridiculous is an object complement:

English 402: Grammar

slide 12 example of a reed kellogg diagram of a pattern x sentence
slide 12: example of a Reed-Kellogg diagram of a Pattern X sentence

And here is the diagram of the sentence I consider him a nutjob where the noun phrase a nutjob is an object complement:

English 402: Grammar