Agenda • Welcome • What is differentiation? • A class in common • Break • What is differentiation? • Principles of differentiation • Exit cards for next time
A Class in Common • For each of the students who you hear about, think about: • What are the academic/social needs of this student? • What are the academic/social strengths of this student?
Differentiation is NOT… ONE SIZE FITS ALL…
Differentiation is NOT… Individualized instruction with separate lesson plans for each student
Differentiation IS… Recognizing that students are different and responding to those differences in a thoughtful way.
Guiding Principle: Differentiation is a PHILOSOPHY, not a “Bag of Tricks.”
Differentiation of Instruction is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks ongoing assessment and adjustment flexible grouping clarity of learning goals appropriate challenge
NEXT Teachers can differentiate Content Process Product according to students’ Readiness Interests Learning Profiles through a range of instructional and management strategies such as:
STRUGGLING LEARNERS: Complete the packet of worksheets on force and motion. You may choose to work with a partner if you like. Check your work with the answer key in the back of the room. ADVANCED LEARNERS: Using power tools and your natural brilliance, construct a rocket to launch during the Homecoming Half Time Show. Respectful Tasks? BACK
Behind every good differentiated lesson… …is good curriculum.
Planning a focused curriculum means clarity about what students should: KNOW: Facts Vocabulary UNDERSTAND: Concepts, “Big Ideas” Principles, generalizations BE ABLE TO DO: Skills Basic Skills (Read non-fiction text) Thinking Skills (analyze, solve, compare/contrast, discriminate fact/fiction) Skills Of the Discipline (What does a speech writer do? Journalist? Editor?) Planning (Goal setting, use of time) Social (cooperation, sharing)
OVER CHALLENGE: UNDERCHALLENGE Appropriate Challenge…
BRAIN RESEARCHReticular Activating SystemRAS = “Toggle Switch” Only one of these three states is activated (aroused) at a time: “Certain motivational states which interfere with learning condition are especially dangerous: anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily when teachers expect too much from students; boredom occurs when teachers expect too little.” – Howard Gardner Learning only happens when the toggle switch is in the middle position
Differentiation does NOT mean “dumbing down” Rather than a vice that keeps kids down, differentiation is meant to be a stool that gives students a “boost.” YES NO
The Importance of High Expectations • Research indicates that students perform up (or down!) to teacher expectations Video Clip: A Class Divided BACK
Ongoing assessment and adjustment • Uncovering student misunderstandings: • Video Clip: A Private Universe • Strategies for uncovering student misunderstandings • Exit Cards • Graphic Organizers
Entry Card: Earth Science • Draw the orbit of the earth around the sun. • What causes the seasons?
Easy Strategy for Assessing Student Understanding… ENTRY/ EXIT CARDS
Entry Cards: Earth Science Name: • Draw the orbit of the earth around the sun. • What causes the seasons? • Why is it warmer in the summer than in the winter?
Exit Cards: Earth Science Name: • Draw the orbit of the earth around the sun. • What causes the seasons? • Why is it warmer in the summer than in the winter? • Did your opinion about any of these things change as a result of today’s class?
Entry/Exit Cards: Algebra Name: • Draw a graph & label the “x” and “y” axes • Graph a line with the endpoints (3,5) (7,2) • Graph a line with the endpoints (-3,-5) (7,2) • Provide two ways of writing the equation for a line
Exit Card3-2-1 3 – Write the three most important ideas you have learned so far. 2 – Write two questions you still have about what you have learned. 1 – Write one way you can use what you have learned.
EXIT CARD GROUPINGS Group 2 Students with some understanding of concept or skill Group 1 Students who are struggling with the concept or skill Group 3 Students who understand the concept or skill Readiness Groups
Flexible Grouping BUZZARDS BLUEJAYS WOMBATS
Flexible Grouping • Sometimes you group according to students’ “READINESS.” • “Readiness” refers to a student’s grasp of a particular concept or task – not to “general ability.” • Sometimes students make CHOICES about how they will be grouped. • Sometimes you group according to students’ INTERESTS. • Sometimes you group according to students’ LEARNING PROFILES. BACK
"Readiness" Differentiation = where is THIS child at THIS time with THIS particular skill or idea?
KUDs for RAFT • KNOW: • the plot of Romeo and Juliet • UNDERSTAND: • Great literature allows for multiple, rich interpretations. • Literary interpretations must be supportable. • DO: • Identify and explore a theme in the play • create a written response exploring the theme
Levels of Writing Challenge Speaker Diary Entry Monologue Dialogue Drama Narrative Exposition Topic Audience
Romeo & Juliet RAFT KUDs • Know: • The basic plot of and characters in Romeo and Juliet • Understand: • That literary themes are carefully developed throughout a work. • That literary themes are often complex and multi-faceted. • Be Able to Do: • Analyze a theme in a literary work