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Visual Perception: An Overview. Priya Raghubir Sensory Marketing Conference Ann Arbor, June 2008. Visual Perception: This session. Priya Raghubir "Visual Perception: An Overview“ Eric Greenleaf:

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priya raghubir sensory marketing conference ann arbor june 2008

Visual Perception: An Overview


Sensory Marketing Conference

Ann Arbor, June 2008

visual perception this session
Visual Perception: This session
  • Priya Raghubir
    • "Visual Perception: An Overview“
  • Eric Greenleaf:
    • "Does Everything Look Worse in Black and White? The Role of Monochrome Images in Consumer Behavior."
  • Amitava Chattopadhyay, Gerry Gorn, and Peter Drake
    • “Differences and Similarities in Hue Preferences between Chinese and Caucasians.”
  • Xiaoyan Deng and Barbara Kahn:
    • “Is Your Product on the Right Side? The "Location Effect" on Consumer Responses to Package Design"
vision a well studied construct
Vision: A well-studied construct
  • The effect of visual properties on attention
  • The mediating effect of visual attention on consumer judgments such as
    • Perception,
    • Sensation,
    • Affect,
    • Cognition, and
    • Behavior.
  • The moderating role of
    • Context and
    • Individual differences

on the level and focus of attention and consumer judgments.


Visual Perception (based on Greenleaf and Raghubir 2008)

  • Visual Properties: A typology
  • Geometric:Complexity, Curvature, Congruence, Completeness
  • Statistical: Trend (Direction), Variance, Skewness, Kurtosis
  • Temporal:Duration, Movement, Speed, Acceleration, Variance
  • Information format: Pictorial, Semantic, Digital, Other
  • Other: Color, Tone, Texture, Strength, Size, Light, Valence
  • Individual Difference
  • Ability
  • Schemas, Beliefs
  • Knowledge, Expertise
  • Culture
  • Familiarity
  • Processing Style
  • Consumer Context
  • Position
  • Amount of Information
  • Point of View
  • Frame
  • Reference
  • Vividness
  • Resource availability
  • Architectural Elements
  • Free-standing structures

Attention: Level, Focus

Type of Processing: Pre-conscious, Non-conscious, Heuristic, Systematic, Hard-wired


  • Consumer Judgments
  • Perception:Accuracy relative to actual visual property
  • Sensation:Touch, Smell, Taste, Sound
  • Affect:Feelings, Moods, Attitudes, Satisfaction
  • Cognition: Inferences, Beliefs, Intentions, Meta-cognitions
  • Behavior:Timing, Options, Resources
a simple unifying framework
A Simple Unifying Framework
  • Unifying classic and contemporary findings of Visual Marketing (Wedel and Pieters 2008)
  • Using a variation of the Accessibility - Diagnosticity framework (Feldman and Lynch (1988)
  • The Mere-Accessibility Framework (Menon and Raghubir 2003):
    • The conscious use of a visual feature to make a judgment is contingent on the salience and perceived diagnosticity of alternates sources of visual/ non-visual information to make the same judgment.
    • The uncontrollable use of a specific aspect of visual information is contingent on its perceptual salience (mere accessibility).
  • Developed into the Hard-Wired model (Raghubir 2008) for visual perception:
    • Five types of Processes: Pre-conscious, Non-conscious, Heuristic, Systematic, Hard-wired
    • Contingent on Awareness of the stimulus, its influence, availability of cognitive resources, processing motivation, and the controllability of the influence of stimuli on judgments
this framework can unify the extant findings related to attention
This framework can unify the extant findings related to Attention
  • The six cornerstones of Eye-Tracking
    • Eye Movements reflect Information Sampling in Time and Space
    • Awareness of Individual Eye Movements is Limited
    • The Perceptual Field during Eye Fixations is Narrow
    • Eye Movements are Tightly coupled with Attention
    • Attention is Central to Ad processing
    • Eye Movements reflect Ad Processing
  • The First fixation provides the gist of an ad
  • Informativeness is in the eye and depends on goals

(Pieters and Wedel 2008)

which can follow through to sales
Which can follow through to sales
  • Visual Life as a consequence of in-store response:
    • Contingent and Pre-store response
  • As a function of package design
    • Contingent on brand awareness and image
  • Which can be affected by shelf position, facings, price displays
    • Contingent on store awareness and image

Chandon et al. (2008)

it can also explain the effect of visual information on affect
It can also explain the effect of visual information on Affect
  • An object can be
    • Consciously Selected or Ignored
    • Or Merely perceived
  • This is a function of:
    • Top-down Influences
    • Stimulus Characteristics
  • Whereas selected or ignored objects lead to attitude (and behavior) change; the affect associated with objects that are merely perceived can be misattributed (Cho, Schwarz, and Song 2008)

Tavassoli 2008

the effect of pictorial schematics on affective cognitive responses
The effect of Pictorial schematics on Affective/ Cognitive Responses:
  • Four levels of Differentiation
  • First level: Relative Picture/ Word Ratio
    • Documentary Layout  Read and Examine
    • Pictorial Layout  View and Glance
  • Second Level: Goal of the Picture in the Ad
    • Look-through Pictures  Infer meaning
    • Look-at Pictures  Aesthetic enjoyment
  • Third level: Genre
    • Tableaux  Time on Ad
    • Frozen Narratives  Time in Story
    • Rhetorical Figures  Automaticity of Inferences
with higher order processing
With higher order processing
  • Fourth level: Types of Figurative Visual Structure:
    • Juxtaposition: A beside B
    • Inclusion: A inside B
    • Combination: A combined with B to form C
    • Fusion: A fused with B to form AB
    • Replacement: A in place of B
    • Removal: A and not-B

McQuarrie (2008)

it can also be used to understand
It can also be used to understand

Extant Findings in Spatial Perception Research

  • 0 Dimension: Numerosity Perceptions
  • 1 Dimension: Distance and Length estimates
  • 2 Dimensions: Area estimates
  • 3 Dimensions: Volume and Consumption estimates

With the Moderating Effects of individual and contextual characteristics

(Krishna 2008)

and the moderating effect of contextual space on object perception
And the Moderating effect of Contextual space on object perception
  • Structural Elements:
    • Ceiling Height, Windows, Wall Composition, Wall Contour, Store Layout, Architectural Adventure Elements
  • Free Standing In-Store Structures:
    • Display surfaces, Types of Display Cases, Arrangements in Display cases, Store fixture-product Access Interface, Mirror Orientation, Virtual Reality tools, Counter top displays, artwork
  • Broader Contextual Factors:
    • Architecture of the broader shopping environment, Same and complementary category stores

Meyers-Levy and Zhu (2008)

with a new range of constructs and consequences to examine
With a new range of constructs and consequences to examine:
  • Beyond attention, perception and comprehension
  • To meaning creation, and cognitive metaphors:
    • Mediating mechanisms include:
      • Meaning expansion, flexibility, breadth contingent on a product line
      • Via advertising, and imagery
      • Leading to integration of meaning, reinforcement of beliefs and behavior change

Janiszewski (2008)


Going forward: A research Agenda could examine

the Interaction of Perceotion on Sensation (and vice versa)

With consequences for affect, cognition, and behavior

Visual Properties

Individual Difference

Consumer Context


Type of Processing


  • Consumer Judgments
  • Perception
  • Sensation:Touch, Smell, Taste, Sound
  • Affect
  • Cognition
  • Behavior

An Example: The Moderating Effect of Perception on Sensation:

(Raghubir, Tyebjee, and Lin, working paper)


Chemical Composition

Visual Cues

Taste Expectation

Cultural Cues

Haptic (touch) cues

Sensation: Consumer Taste Bud Sensitivity

Aural (Smell) Cues

Response Biases

Task Difficulty

Domain Consistency

Perceived Taste

Ability to Discriminate

Consistency of Preference