Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC). Presentation prepared by Anne Kielland and the World Banks’ OVC Thematic Group , up-dated for the OVC Toolkit in November 2004. Content. 1. Background OVC Defining OVC Estimating the numbers of OVC OVC and the Millennium Development Goals
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Presentation prepared by Anne Kielland
and the World Banks’ OVC Thematic Group,
up-dated for the OVC Toolkit in November 2004
Estimating the numbers of OVC
OVC and the Millennium Development Goals
Although the orphan*rate in SSA has increased only marginally, over the last decade the AIDS pandemic has contributed to increase the number of orphans in SSA by 11 millions (30%) and by 2010 will be responsiblefor 18 millions (36%) of Africa’s orphan population.
Orphans in SSA: A Growing Concern
* An ”orphan” is defined as a child 0-17 who has lost one or both parents. Source: Children on the Brink 2004
So many children in SSA are vulnerable. Beyond vulnerable orphans, how do we define the larger group of OVC?
OVC are the children who, in a given local setting, are most likely to fall through the cracks of regular programs, policies and traditional safety nets and therefore need to be given special attention when programs and policy are designed and implemented.
To plan for the integration of these most critically vulnerable children we need a more precise definition.
Narrowing Down the OVC Concept
1. Core group of OVC
2. OVC gray zone
Core OVC Interest Groups
Examples of groups that could be locally eligible
butthat do not (necessarily) belong to the core OVC groups
Children who face collective deprivation or risks typical for most of their local peers, or large groups of peers. For instance:
Who are not OVC?
Taxonomy Pros and Cons
Child headed households
Expulsion of child/
child runs away
The Cause-Consequence Tree gives a first impression of the degrees of child vulnerability: children are vulnerable in the upper part of the tree, but even more so after an additional shock sends them to the lower part.
While in fact all children by nature are vulnerable to some extent, they are not equally so:
The Relativity of Child Vulnerability
Child vulnerability is a relative, not an absolute state. The seamlessdegrees of child vulnerability can be seen as a downward spiral where each loop downward in the spiral leads to a situation where the child is more likely to experience a negative outcome as a result of a shock. The 'spiral' concept adds to the vulnerability definition by allowing for multiple stages of vulnerability.
Even an ordinary child depends on the support and supervision of caring adults.
A child in a poor household or a household with poor social network is even more vulnerable.
A shock to the household worsens the situation (parental death, disease, addiction; drought, devaluation, conflict)
The child looses protection and/or is gradually forced to support him/her self.
The child disconnects completely from family and household.
Many, if not most African children are vulnerable to risks and shocks. OVC are the most critically vulnerable among them, those who, due to certain characteristics, are at a considerably higher risk that their local peers.
The risks that face OVC more often than others are early death, poor health, educational deprivation, abuse, neglect and exploitation.
OVC are either orphaned, separated from their parents (social orphans), live with somehow dysfunctional parents, or need special protection measurements beyond what can reasonably be expected to be provided by normal homes.
OVC are mainly found within five core groups, but do not necessarily include all children who are: 1) affected by AIDS, 2) affected by war, 3) disabled, and all children who 4) live in the streets, and 5) work in the worst or most hazardous forms of child labor.
Also, locally defined special groups of children can be considered as OVC beyond these core groups, but the OVC term can not be used to describe the majority of children in a community or a country.
Estimating the Number of OVC
How to estimate the numbers of OVC
The inclusion and protection of OVC is needed to reach at least 6 of the 8 Millennium Development Goals.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education by 2015.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality by 2/3 by 2015.
Goal 1: Halve the proportion of people who live on less than $1 a day by 2015.
Goal 3: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005.
Goal 5: Reduce maternal mortality rate by ¾ by 2015.
Goal 6: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other major diseases by 2015.
OVC and the Millennium Development Goals
Indicator: Children everywhere able to complete primary school by 2015.
Goal 2: Universal Education
(See slide notes page for numbers and backgroundestimates)
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Goal 1: Half the proportion of people who live on less than $1 a day by 2015.
… indirect effects (cont.)
Inclusion and equal participation of OVC will require higher per-child costs than inclusion of non-OVC.
Inaction is costly!
Rehabilitating a former street child, child delinquent, child soldier or child prostitute is difficult and costly.
Rehabilitation vs. prevention
Prevention for children@risk
Coping for the most critically vulnerable
Ensuring the sustainability of OVC interventions
Approaching OVC issues
Defining your intervention