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  1. New Orleans Winter Service TripHeidi Bramson, Taafoi Kamara, Laura Norris, Jennifer Allard, Michael Oldham, Amber Harris, Genevieve Birkby, Kerry Shannon, Joel Palmer, Anna Dolinsky

  2. We would like to acknowledge: • The MPH Program Office • Our faculty sponsor: Dr. Holly Grason • Additional faculty sponsors: Dr. Lynn Goldman & Dr. Norma Kanarek

  3. HurricaneKatrina

  4. New Orleans, Louisiana

  5. The Flood

  6. New Orleans, LA • Population: 484,674 • Post-Katrina Estimates: • 181,400 in the city Jan. 2006, 160,000 relocated • Over 1,000 deaths directly related to Katrina in LA

  7. The Lower 9th : • Pre-Katrina: 14,008 people, 4,820 households • 98.3% African American, 0.5% Caucasian, 0.5% Hispanic • Highest rates of black home-ownership in the country—59% • Of the 117 schools in Orleans Parish, only 25 have reopened • Hit hardest by flooding, and no government population data is available post-Katrina

  8. Poverty Census Data 2000

  9. Lower 9th, immediately after Katrina

  10. ...and when we visited

  11. RALLY and ACORN

  12. R.A.L.L.Y. Foundation • Founded in October, 2005 by Dr. Nancy Mock, a Tulane Associate Professor in Public Health • Created to monitor and evaluate the impact of recovery efforts in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina

  13. Trinity Christian Community

  14. HistoricTremé Surveys

  15. Focus Groups • Central City Focus Group • Trinity Christian Community Americorps Focus Group

  16. ACORN: Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now • The nation's largest community organization of low- and moderate-income families • 850 neighborhood chapters in 100 cities across the United States • Canada, Dominican Republic, Peru

  17. ACORN’s Katrina Relief Work • Re-claiming Lower 9th Ward Homes • House gutting • Rehabilitation Work • Continuing Community Advocacy and Community Organizing

  18. Public Health Impacts

  19. Access to Health Services • In 2004 only 47% of Louisiana's non-elderly had employer-sponsored benefits and 21% of the non-elderly population were uninsured. • Of the 10 full service hospitals in NOLA, only 4 have reopened since Hurricane Katrina. Only half of the health care professionals have returned to the area • FEMA trailer parks and access to care

  20. Mental Health Impact • Both residents and first-responders affected • Increased rates of of PTSD, depression, substance abuse, chronic stress, domestic violence • Complicated by limited access to care and deficits in trained professions who have returned to the area • SAMHSA

  21. Flood Waters • Variety of water conditions • Most affected regions had elevated levels of E.Coli, lead, arsenic, chromium, and other VOCs • Region has 54 former toxic waste dump sites, some of which may have been compromised • EPA tests suggested that many on the toxic chemicals were below what is considered to be “immediately hazardous”, what about long term effects?

  22. Hazards of Clean-up • Physical injuries • Disposal of hazardous waste • Mold growth-long-term effects unclear • Air quality concerns from demolition • “Katrina Cough”

  23. Oil Spills • 6 major, 4 medium and 134 minor spills totaling 8 million gallons. • Spill at Murphy Oil Company Plant totaled more than 25,000 barrels of oil. • 3.8 million gallons recovered, significant amounts evaporated, were dispersed in water sources, 100,000 washed onshore. • Reports of possible affects to shellfish population

  24. Lower 9th Ward Pre-Katrina: A Community of Vitality and Social Activism • 1st deep-South school district to open its all-white doors to black children (1960, School McDonogh #19, St. Claude Avenue) • Variety of community/social service agencies: Lower Ninth Ward Neighborhood Council; Total Community Action's Lower Ninth Ward Head Start Program ; Lower Ninth Ward Housing Development Corporation • 60 percent of the residents in lower 9th Ward were homeowners, compared to 46 percent home ownership in the rest of New Orleans

  25. Displacement

  26. Pre-Katrina: 65% Black 1960-2000: 37% to 66% Black 97% of increase descendants of New Orleanians Post-Katrina: Return Rate for Black New Orleanians 30% Displacement: • Who: • Working Poor • Black • Elderly • Disabled • Single Mothers

  27. Lower 9th: 80-85% African-American Home Ownership Low cost of living: 2nd and 3rd generation homes 20% return rate Gas and water only turned on in October, 2006 “Do not Bulldoze” gut homes: $4000.00 Keep yards kept How do you re-build a city that plans for economic revitalization and both secure the housing rights of residents? Eminent Domain: Business interests in Industrial Canal. Mayor Nagin’s 17 member planning commission: 10 powerful business owners, 5 are real estate developers. Homeowners

  28. Kirk v. City of New Orleans(Dec. ‘05) • City planned on bulldozing approx. 2,500 homes without owners consent or a court hearing • City: dangerously unstable homes • Plaintiffs(homeowners in Orleans Parish) contend: -involvement in the demolition process -compensation -flawed inspection process -many of the homes in 9th ward 1.13.06 – settlement: -reasonable time period for notice of demolition -written notification to last known address -toll-free number for residents to inquire about their home -Times-Picayune notice for 3 consecutive days and notice on City of New Orleans website -process for residents to challenge demolition •

  29. • Urban Planning Report: January 2007 • Cornell, Columbia, Univ. of Ill. • • 230 household surveys • 3,500 properties assessed • 400 businesses assessed • 27 parks, public facilities, street conditions • Over 80 percent of Ninth Ward's structures "suffered no terminal structural damage“ • Most can meet new flood zone reqs. b/c built on piers. • Re-building can be cost-effective

  30. Class-action lawsuit Plaintiffs: approx. 5,000 displaced families of “The Big Four” Housing Dvlpts.: Lafitte St. Bernard C.J. Peete B.W. Cooper Defendants: US Dpt. Of Housing and Urban Dvlpt. (HUD)/ Housing Authority of NO (HANO) Feds delayed move-in date, stopped repairs, and admitted demolition. Feds: mold and structural damage mixed-income plan for public housing Renters: Leases Rent hike Vouchers insufficient (utilities) Mixed-Income history in New Orleans: built by private developers; not public housing St. Thomas: 1510 families > 100 families, Wal-mart Anderson V. Jackson 6.27.06

  31. Lafitte: demo and rebuild fewer units: $100 mil.+ overhaul: $85 mil. repair: $20 mil. St. Bernard: demo and rebuild fewer units: $197 mil. overhaul: $130 mil. repair: $41 mil. BW Cooper: demo and rebuild fewer units: $221 mil. overhaul: $135 mil. Lafitte: 850 families > 410; 154 low-income St. Bernard: 1400 apts. > 595; 160 low-income B.W. Cooper: 1546 apts.> 410; 154 low-income C.J. Peete: 723 apts. > 410; 154 low-income New Mixed-Income Plans:costs and reachaccording to LA Housing Finance Agency

  32. Judge: 4 key points for trialTimes-Picayune 2.9.07 • # of units ready for lease • Type of repairs needed for damaged units • # of tenants who want to return: • Approx. 1200 have already returned where allowed • 90% of families in Lafitte surveyed by HANO want to return • “Inadequacies” of voucher program Blanco just asserted support of re-opening public housing where possible

  33. Public Health Students in Action

  34. Free Medical Care for Uninsured • Organized by NOLA Department of Health, funded and staffed by Operation Blessing, Remote Area Medical, federal/state/local agencies and NGOs. • 3,900 people provided with medical, dental, optical, and behavioral health care (including HIV testing and counseling). 700 patients seen each day. Lines began forming before dawn, even in pouring rain. • Patients given flash drive with their medical records as part of research on healthcare information portability.

  35. HIV Testing and Referrals • NOLA Mayor’s Office on HIV Policy and Funding did not know about Health Recovery Week one month before the event! • 2 agencies provided VCT. 160 people tested, 2 diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. • Everyone who tested got a flier with referral to legal services hotline - free legal counseling to prevent discrimination, identify potential legal problems.

  36. Outpouring of Volunteers • Estimated number of US volunteers in the Gulf Region to date: 575, 554

  37. The Red Cross • In the two weeks after storm, the Red Cross dispatched over 74,000 volunteers, providing shelter to 160,000 people and dispensing 7.5 million meals • By most recent counts, the Red Cross has deployed more than 244,000 volunteers (95% unpaid) and provided: • 346,980 comfort kits • 205,360 clean up kits • 68 million snacks and meals • 596,810 health contacts • 826,590 mental health contacts

  38. Corporation for National and Community Service • Over 35,000 national service volunteers have worked with federal, state, and non-profit organizations in the rebuilding efforts • Provided over 1.6 million service hours

  39. Many more groups involved… • 21,595 gallons of water purified by Southern Baptist Convention volunteers • 22,000 survivors received free medical care from Episcopal Relief and Development • 10,000+ college students spent Spring Break volunteering in the region • 350 “built in a box” houses sent by Habitat for Humanity

  40. Help is still desperately needed: • Thousands of homes remain to be rebuilt • Hundreds of thousands of volunteers needed for gutting, skilled labor, health services, mentoring,….. • Extensive list of almost 50 organizations working in the Gulf Coast:

  41. Job opportunities • NOHD divisions: school-based health, healthcare for the homeless, WIC, nursing services. • Louisiana Dept. of Health job search for public health positions: disease intervention specialist, PH epidemiologist. • Louisiana Public Health Institute: Clinical program manager, school health. • See list of 50 organizations working in Gulf Coast

  42. ACORN Ongoing On-line Donation Drive