Nationalism in the middle east
1 / 11

Nationalism in the Middle East - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Nationalism in the Middle East. A WH1 Presentation by Mr. Hess. Introduction. In the 1920s, 30s, and 40s, nationalism became widespread in the Middle East, particularly in: the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey) Palestine (now Israel), and Persia (now Iran). The Ottoman Empire.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Nationalism in the Middle East' - sandra_john

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Nationalism in the middle east l.jpg

Nationalism in the Middle East

A WH1 Presentation

by Mr. Hess

Introduction l.jpg

  • In the 1920s, 30s, and 40s, nationalism became widespread in the Middle East, particularly in:

    • the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey)

    • Palestine (now Israel), and

    • Persia (now Iran)

The ottoman empire l.jpg
The Ottoman Empire

  • The Ottoman Empire was already in decline by the end of the 19th century.

  • The sultan allied with Germany in WWI to try to strengthen the empire.

    • Result: lost all lands but present-day Turkey

  • 1919 – Greece invaded, in an attempt to destroy the Ottoman Empire.

The ottoman empire cont l.jpg
The Ottoman Empire, cont.

  • Mustafa Kemal led troops in defeating the Greeks in 1922.

  • He then demanded that the sultan give up the throne.

  • Kemal became the first president of the Republic of Turkey.

Turkey l.jpg

Kemal brought in western influences:


Latin alphabet,

metric system,

western-style last names,

separation of government and religion.

He also promoted national pride:

“Purified” the language of all words of Persian or Arabic origin.

Changed his name to Kemal Ataturk (father of the Turks).


Palestine l.jpg

  • After WWI, Britain received control of Palestine from the Ottoman Empire.

  • Arabs and Jews both believed they had claims to the land.

  • Jewish immigration to Palestine had increased due to persecution and Zionism (the movement to reestablish a Jewish homeland in Palestine).

Palestine cont l.jpg
Palestine, cont.

  • Britain had promised Arabs independence in return for help against the Ottoman Turks.

  • They also promised help in establishing a Jewish homeland.

  • Nazi persecution of Jews further increased immigration, leading to violence between Jews and Arabs.

    • Britain failed to control the situation.

Persia l.jpg

  • 1921 – Unhappy with foreign influences, Reza Khan and nationalists overthrew the shah (king).

  • He built schools, roads, hospitals, and allowed women more freedom.

Persia cont l.jpg
Persia, cont.

  • Reza adopted many Western ways, but tried to reduce Western political influence.

  • Due to resistance to democracy, he ruled as dictator.

    • He changed his name to Reza Shah Pahlavi.

Persia cont10 l.jpg
Persia, cont.

  • He aligned Persia with Nazi Germany, believing they shared a common Aryan ancestry.

    • He changed Persia’s name to Iran (=Aryan).

  • During WWII, he was deposed by Allied forces, who replaced him with his son, who was much more cooperative toward the west.

Today l.jpg

  • Turkey continues to be one of the few democracies in the Middle East.

  • Violence continues between Jews and Arabs in Israel.

  • Iran has been an Islamic theocracy since 1978, when Mohammed Shah Pahlavi was overthrown.

    • The Iran Hostage Crisis occurred soon afterward, with 52 Americans held hostage for over a year.