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Muscular system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Muscular system. Includes all skeletal muscle tissue that can be controlled voluntarily. Organization of skeletal muscle fibers. Parallel muscle Convergent muscle Pennate muscle Unipennate Bipennate Multipennate Circular muscle (sphincter).

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muscular system
Muscular system
  • Includes all skeletal muscle tissue that can be controlled voluntarily
organization of skeletal muscle fibers
Organization of skeletal muscle fibers
  • Parallel muscle
  • Convergent muscle
  • Pennate muscle
    • Unipennate
    • Bipennate
    • Multipennate
  • Circular muscle (sphincter)
levers
Levers
  • Rigid structure that moves on a fixed point, the fulcrum
  • Changes direction and strength of applied force
  • Changes distance and speed of movement
  • Three classes
    • First class
    • Second class
    • Third class
    • Most common in the body

PLAY

Animation: First, Second and Third-Class Levers

origins and insertions
Origins and Insertions
  • Muscles can be identified by origin, insertion and action
    • Origin = stationary end
    • Insertion = movable end
actions
Actions
  • Muscles can be classified by action
    • Agonist (prime mover)
    • Antagonist
    • Synergist
    • Fixator
names of skeletal muscles
Names of skeletal muscles
  • Names give clues to muscle characteristics
    • Location
    • Fascicle organization
    • Relative position
    • Structure
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Origin and insertion
    • Action
axial and appendicular muscles
Axial and Appendicular Muscles
  • Axial musculature arises on axial skeleton
    • Positions head and spinal column and moves the rib cage
  • Appendicular musculature moves and stabilizes components of the appendicular skeleton
axial muscles
Axial muscles
  • Logical groupings based on location and/or function
    • Head and neck
    • Vertebral column
    • Oblique and rectus muscles
    • Pelvic floor
muscles of the head and neck
Muscles of the head and neck
  • Facial expression muscles
    • Orbicularis oris
    • Occipitofrontalis muscles
extrinsic eye muscles oculomotor or extra ocular muscles
Extrinsic eye muscles (oculomotor or extra-ocular muscles)
  • Inferior and superior rectus muscles
  • Lateral and medial rectus muscles
  • Inferior and superior oblique muscles
oblique and rectus muscles
Oblique and rectus muscles
  • Oblique
    • Scalene muscles
    • Intercostal muscles
    • Transverses muscles
  • External and internal intercostals
  • Diaphragm
muscles of the shoulders and upper arms
Muscles of the shoulders and upper arms
  • Trapezius muscles
    • Affect the position of the shoulder girdle, head and neck
  • Muscles inserting on the scapula
    • Rhomboid muscles
    • Levator scapulae muscles
    • Serratus anterior muscles
    • Subclavius muscles
    • Pectoralis minor muscles
shoulder muscles
Shoulder muscles
  • Adductors
    • Deltoid muscles
    • Supraspinatus muscles
  • Medial rotators
    • Subscapularis muscles
    • Teres major muscles
  • Lateral rotation
    • Infraspinatus muscles
    • Teres minor muscles
more shoulder movements
More shoulder movements
  • Flexion and adduction
    • Coracobrachialis
  • Flexion of the shoulder joint
    • Pectoralis major muscles
  • Extension of the shoulder joint
    • Latissimus dorsi muscles
muscles of the shoulders and upper arms32
Muscles of the shoulders and upper arms
  • Trapezius muscles
    • Affect the position of the shoulder girdle, head and neck
  • Muscles inserting on the scapula
    • Rhomboid muscles
    • Levator scapulae muscles
    • Serratus anterior muscles
    • Subclavius muscles
    • Pectoralis minor muscles
shoulder muscles37
Shoulder muscles
  • Adductors
    • Deltoid muscles
    • Supraspinatus muscles
  • Medial rotators
    • Subscapularis muscles
    • Teres major muscles
  • Lateral rotation
    • Infraspinatus muscles
    • Teres minor muscles
more shoulder movements40
More shoulder movements
  • Flexion and adduction
    • Coracobrachialis
  • Flexion of the shoulder joint
    • Pectoralis major muscles
  • Extension of the shoulder joint
    • Latissimus dorsi muscles
flexors of the knee
Flexors of the knee
  • The hamstrings
    • Biceps femoris muscles
    • Semimembranosus muscles
    • Semitendinosis muscles
  • Popliteus muscle unlocks the knee joint
extensors of the knee
Extensors of the knee
  • Quadriceps femoris
    • Three vastus muscles
    • Rectus femoris muscle

PLAY

Animation: Muscles of the lower limbs

movements at the ankle
Movements at the ankle
  • Plantar flexion
    • Gastrocnemius muscle
    • Soleus muscle
  • Eversion and plantar flexion
    • Fibularis muscle
  • Foot position and toe movement is accomplished by muscles originating on the talus and metatarsal bones