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MANGROVES OR MANGAL. “Rainforest by the Sea” Associations of halophytic trees, shrubs or other plants growing in brackish to saline water Found on tropical and subtropical coastlines Inundated daily with sea water but protected from heavy waves Limited by frost. ADAPTATIONS.

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mangroves or mangal
MANGROVES OR MANGAL
  • “Rainforest by the Sea”
  • Associations of halophytic trees, shrubs or other plants growing in brackish to saline water
  • Found on tropical and subtropical coastlines
  • Inundated daily with sea water but protected from heavy waves
  • Limited by frost
adaptations
ADAPTATIONS
  • Salinity Control – salt exclusion or secretion
  • Viviparous seedlings
  • Prop roots and pneumatophores
salinity
SALINITY
  • Facultative halophytes – found over a wide range of salinity; 10-60 ppt
  • Competitive advantage over freshwater species
  • Survive wide annual fluctuations
mangrove community types
MANGROVE COMMUNITY TYPES
  • Fringe Mangroves
  • Overwash island
  • Shoreline
slide8

Rhizophora mangle

  • Red Mangrove, Mangle Rojo
  • Opposite, evergreen leaves & white flowers
  • Prop roots – grounded and ungrounded
  • Viviparous
slide9

Avicennia germinans

  • Black mangrove, Mangle negro
  • Opposite, leathery leaves; yellowish to dark green above, downy beneath with salt glands
  • pneumatophores
slide10

Laguncularia racemosa

  • White mangrove, Mangle blanco
  • Leathery, opposite leaves with rounded tips and 2 salt glands on petiole
slide11

Conocarpus erectus Buttonwood, Mangle de botón

  • Leaves alternate, elliptical, with a row of salt glands along the rachis
zonation
ZONATION

MHW

Conocarpus erectus

Laguncularia racemosa

Avicennia germinans

Rhizophora mangle

succession
SUCCESSION
  • Peat accumulation balanced by tidal export, fire and hurricanes
  • Advance and retreat of zones according to the fall or rise of sea level
  • Stressed or youthful ecosystems
    • Slowed or arrested succession
    • Low diversity
    • Open nutrient cycles
factors controlling primary productivity
FACTORS CONTROLLING PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
  • Tides and water chemistry intertwined
    • Transport of oxygen to roots
    • Removal of toxins and salt from pore water
    • Control of sediment accumulation
    • Regeneration of nutrients lost from root zone
  • Water chemistry alone
    • Pore water salinity
    • Concentration of nutrients
organic export
ORGANIC EXPORT
  • 50% of productivity exported as detritus
  • May supply as much as 52% of the fixed carbon available for secondary productivity
  • Detritus primary food source to invertebrates and forage fish
animals associated with red mangrove prop roots
ANIMALS ASSOCIATED WITH RED MANGROVE PROP ROOTS
  • Roots provide nursery areas and solid substrate
  • Proximity to and extent of exchange between coastal waters, especially coral reefs
  • Presence or absence of algae
  • Tidal amplitude
  • Competitive interactions
  • Predation, particularly intraguild predation

http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/html/tropecoimages.html#Anchor-mangroves

general faunal types
GENERAL FAUNAL TYPES
  • Adjacent to coral reefs, e.g. Carrie Bow Cay, Belize
    • Sponges, tunicates, hydroids, anemones, polychaetes
  • Isolated from reefs
    • Isopods, barnacles, molluscs, algae, amphipods
laguna boca paila
Laguna Boca Paila
  • Water very clear
  • Bottom either covered with Halodule wrightii, Ruppia sp., or leaf litter, otherwise sand/shell
  • Tree heights 10-22 ft.
  • Protected embayment with only a small inlet to Caribbean
abundances of higher taxa
ABUNDANCES OF HIGHER TAXA

Isopod

6%

Tanaid

4%

Amphipod

Bivalves

86%

3%

Polychaete

1%

dominant species
DOMINANT SPECIES
  • Amphipods
    • Hyale plumulosa
    • Ericthonius brasiliensis
    • Parhyale fascigera
  • Isopods
    • Sphaeroma terebrans
  • Algae
    • Polysiphonia sp.
    • Anotrichium tenue
    • Bostrychia montagnei
    • Batophora oerstiddi
algae dominated root
ALGAE-DOMINATED ROOT
  • Many small, motile invertebrates, especially amphipods
  • Low diversity
  • High abundance
slide23

BARE ROOTS

  • Boring isopods & bivalves
  • Balanoid barnacles
  • Low diversity
  • Low abundance
slide24

Cassidinidea ovalis

Vaunthompsonia minor

Hyale plumulosa

Nodolittorina lineolata

Bathygobius mystacium

Cyclaspis sp.

Littoraria angulifera

Ericthonius brasiliensis

Cyathura cubana

Gobiosoma bosc

LAGUNA BOCA PAILA: PROPOSED FOOD WEB FOR R. MANGLE PROP ROOT COMMUNITY

Detritus

Phytoplankton

Green algae

Primary producer

Mugil cephalus

Pachygrapsus gracilis

Nereis pelagica

Mytilopsis leucophaeata

Ischadium recurvum

Copepods

Ostracods

Nematode

Palaemonetes vulgaris

Macrobranchium acanthurus

Lutjanus apodus

Callinectes portunus

Concrete relationship

Sphoeroides testudinus

Inferred relationship

Eleotris pisonis

Terminal carnivore

Sphyraena barracuda

intraguild predation
INTRAGUILD PREDATION
  • Common in communities with many interference competitors
  • Typical in mangrove prop root communities
  • Defined as killing and eating of competitors
  • Interference competitors at Laguna Boca Paila:
    • Lutjanus-Callinectes
    • Sphyraena-Lutjanus
    • Palaemonetes-Bathygobius
importance to local communities
IMPORTANCE TO LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  • Traditionally managed by local communities
    • Food, medicine, tannins, fuel wood, construction materials
    • Sustainable, dependable, cultural
  • Minimize property damage & deaths due to tropical weather
  • Useful for treating effluent
conservation issues
CONSERVATION ISSUES
  • Among the most threatened habitats in the world
    • Coastal development may result in long-term exposure or flooding
    • Timber & charcoal industries
    • Expanding shrimp aquaculture
  • Considered wastelands or useless swamps