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Management of the Patient with Type 2 Diabetes. Gretchen M. Ray, Pharm.D. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy Resident University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy. Objectives. Provide diabetes screening criteria for adults

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management of the patient with type 2 diabetes

Management of the Patient with Type 2 Diabetes

Gretchen M. Ray, Pharm.D.

Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy Resident

University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy

  • Provide diabetes screening criteria for adults
  • Describe available pharmacologic treatment options for type 2 diabetes including advantages/disadvantages of therapy and contraindications
  • Given a patient case recommend appropriate lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy to achieve glycemic goals
  • Distinguish between microvascular and macrovascular complications
  • Provide screening criteria for nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy
  • Provide treatment strategies for the prevention and treatment of micro and macrovascular complications
epidemiology of type 2 dm
Epidemiology of Type 2 DM
  • In 2005 20.8 million people (7% of the US population) had diabetes
    • 14.6 million diagnosed
    • 6.2 million undiagnosed
  • Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of patients with diabetes
  • In 2002 total indirect and direct medical costs for diabetes = $132 billion

CDC. National diabetes fact sheet. 2005 available at

risk factors for type 2 diabetes
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes
  • Physically inactive
  • 1st degree relative with diabetes
  • Minority ethnic groups
  • Gestational diabetes or delivering a baby >9 lbs
  • Hypertension
  • HDL <35 mg/dL and/or triglycerides >250 mg/dL
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Previous impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
  • History of vascular disease
  • Psychiatric illness
diagnosis of diabetes
Diagnosis of diabetes
  • Symptoms of diabetes + casual plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl
  • FPG ≥ 126 mg/dl
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): 2-h postload glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl



definition of pre diabetes
Definition of “pre-diabetes”
  • Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) = FPG 100-125 mg/dl
  • Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) = 2-h post load glucose 140-199 mg/dl
  • IFG and IGT indicate a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease
diabetes screening
Diabetes Screening
  • Screening identifies asymptomatic patients who might have diabetes
  • Consider in patients ≥ 45 years especially if their BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2
  • Screen patients < 45 years old if they are overweight + an additional risk factor
  • FPG should be done initially
  • Repeat screening every 3 years
  •  hepatic glucose production,  intestinal glucose absorption,  insulin sensitivity
  • Efficacy:  A1C 1.5%
  • Adverse effects
    • Primarily GI (up to 50%)
      • Diarrhea, abdominal bloating, nausea
      • Titrate dose at weekly intervals to minimize AEs
      • Give with meals
    • Lactic acidosis- rare
      • Monitor SCr
contraindications to metformin
Contraindications to Metformin
  • Renal impairment SCr >1.5 for men, >1.4 for women
  • Radiocontrast studies
  • Age >80 unless normal GFR
  • Hypoxia
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Alcoholism
  • Heart Failure requiring pharmacologic therapy
    • According to package insert
  • Should heart failure be a contraindication to metformin?
improved clinical outcomes associated with metformin in patients with diabetes and heart failure
Improved Clinical Outcomes Associated with Metformin in Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure
  • Investigate the association between metformin and clinical outcomes in patients with HF and diabetes
  • Retrospective study
  • Primary outcome: all-cause mortality at 1 year and end of follow-up
  • Secondary outcome: all-cause hospitalizations at 1 year and end of follow-up

Eurich DT, et al. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2345-51

improved clinical outcomes associated with metformin in patients with diabetes and heart failure13
Improved Clinical Outcomes Associated with Metformin in Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure

Eurich DT, et al. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2345-51

improved clinical outcomes associated with metformin in patients with diabetes and heart failure14
Improved Clinical Outcomes Associated with Metformin in Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure
  • Lower all-cause mortality with metformin
  • No increase in hospitalizations associated with metformin
  • Observational study
    • Cannot prove that metformin is efficacious in this population

Eurich DT, et al. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2345-51

  • ↑ insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells
  • Efficacy: ↓ A1C 1.5%
  • Glyburide
    • Not recommended if CrCl < 50 ml/min (use a different sulfonylurea)
  • Glipizide
    • Not recommended if CrCl < 10 ml/min
  • Glimepiride
    • Not recommended if CrCl < 22 ml/min
  • Response of sulfonylureas plateaus after half the max dose
  • Reduced GI absorption if blood glucose > 250 mg/dL
sulfonylureas adverse effects
Sulfonylureas Adverse Effects
  • Hypoglycemia
    • Elderly patients
    • Hepatic/renal impairment
    • Combination therapy
  • Weight gain
thiazolidenediones tzds insulin sensitizers
Thiazolidenediones (TZDs) Insulin Sensitizers
  • TZDs are PPAR- gamma receptor activators
  • ↑ insulin sensitivity
    • Primarily in the peripheral tissue
  • Efficacy:  A1C 0.5-1.4%
  • Effect may not be seen for 4 weeks
  • Rosiglitazone (Avandia®)
    • Initial dose 4 mg/day, Max dose 8 mg/day
  • Pioglitazone (Actos®)
    • Initial dose 15-30 mg/day, Max dose 45 mg/day
adverse effects contraindications of tzds

Fluid retention and peripheral edema

Weight gain

Fluid retention is a major contributor

Redistribution of adipose tissue

New-onset heart failure

< 1%

2-3% when combined with insulin


ALT > 2.5 x upper limit of normal

Hepatic disease

Alcohol Abuse

HF NYHA class III or IV (see following slides)

Adverse Effects/Contraindications of TZDs

Granberry MC, et al. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007;64:931-6

tzd use in heart failure
TZD Use In Heart Failure
  • Use of TZDs in patients with NYHA class I or II HF
    • May be used with initiation of treatment at the lowest dosage (rosiglitazone 2 mg daily or pioglitazone 15 mg daily)
    • Observe for weight gain, edema, or exacerbation of HF
  • Do not use TZDs in patients with NYHA class III or IV HF

Nesto RW, et al. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:256-63

meta analysis of mi risk with rosiglitazone
Meta-analysis of MI Risk With Rosiglitazone
  • 42 trials comparing rosiglitazone with placebo
    • 15,560 patients received rosiglitazone
    • 12,283 patients assigned to comparator groups
    • 24-52 week duration of trials
    • Mean baseline A1C 8.2% for both groups

Nissen SE, et al. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1-15

meta analysis of mi risk with rosiglitazone22
Meta-analysis of MI Risk With Rosiglitazone

Nissen SE, et al. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1-15

proactive trial
PROactive Trial
  • Primary objective: Determine if pioglitazone reduces CV morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes
  • Pioglitazone vs. placebo
    • ↓ Triglycerides 11% vs. 1.8% ↑
    • ↑ LDL 7.2% vs. 4.9%
    • ↓ LDL/HDL 9.5% vs. 4.2%
  • Non-significant reduction in the primary endpoint

Dormandy JA, et al. Lancet. 2005;366:1279-89

proactive sub analysis
PROactive Sub-analysis
  • Evaluated same endpoints in patients with prior MI
  • Significant ↓ in fatal/nonfatal MI excluding silent MI with pioglitazone
    • 5.3% pioglitazone vs. 7.2% placebo p=0.0453
  • Results for rosiglitazone and pioglitazone recently confirmed with two new meta-analyses

Erdmann E, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:1772-80

hf in proactive
HF in PROactive

Dormandy JA, et al. Lancet. 2005;366:1279-89

fda updates august 14 2007
FDA Updates- August 14, 2007
  • Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone received a “boxed warning” regarding CHF

Actos prescribing information. August 2007

fda updates november 19 2007
FDA Updates: November 19, 2007
  • MI risk added to rosiglitazone boxed warning

Avandia prescribing information. November 2007

sitagliptin januvia
Sitagliptin (Januvia®)
  • DPP-4 inhibitor
    • Prevents the degradation of endogenous GLP-1
    • Results in a rise in postprandial endogenous GLP-1 levels


Lauster CD et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:1265-73

sitagliptin januvia29
Sitagliptin (Januvia®)
  • Efficacy: A1C 0.5-0.7%
  • 100 mg PO once daily
    • CrCl 30-50 ml/min 50 mg/day
    • CrCl <30 ml/min 25 mg/day
  • Approved for monotherapy or combination therapy
  • Weight neutral
  • Side effects similar to placebo
  • No contraindications identified yet
glucagon like peptide 1 glp 1 agonists
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists
  • Exenatide (Byetta®)
  • Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog
    • Incretin mimetic
    • Resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4)
    • Suppresses high glucagon levels
    • Delays gastric emptying (can affect absorption of other medications)
  • Efficacy: ↓ A1C 0.5-1%
  • Dosing:
    • 5 mcg SC twice daily within 60 min of meals
    • Increase to 10 mcg bid after 4 weeks
  • FDA approved for type 2 diabetes in patients on metformin, sulfonylurea, TZD, or a combination who are not at goal
    • Not yet approved for use with basal insulin
exenatide adverse effects contraindications

N/V, diarrhea (30-45%)

Modest weight loss (a good side effect)

Hypoglycemia especially in combination with sulfonylureas

Anti-exenatide antibodies


Renal function

A1C in 3 months


Type 1 diabetes


CrCl < 30 ml/min



Exenatide adverse effects/contraindications
pramlintide symlin
Pramlintide (Symlin®)
  • Synthetic analog of human amylin
    • Suppresses glucagon secretion
      • Suppression of endogenous glucose from liver
    • Slows gastric emptying
      • Less rapid glucose appearance in the circulation
    • Regulates food intake due to central modulation of appetite
      • Weight loss
pramlintide symlin36
Pramlintide (Symlin®)
  • FDA approved for Type 1 or 2 diabetes in patients on optimal insulin therapy who are still not at goal
    • With or without metformin and/or sulfonylurea therapy
  • Efficacy: A1C ~0.1-0.4% in type1 and 0.3-0.7% in type 2
  • 60 mcg (10 units) SC titrate to 120 mcg (20 units) before major meals (Type 2 dosing)
    • Dosed in mcg but drawn up in an insulin syringe
  • Administered in conjunction with mealtime insulin
pramlintide symlin37
Adverse Effects

Insulin-Induced Severe Hypoglycemia:

Hypoglycemia will occur within 3 hours of injection

Must reduce pre-meal insulin by 50% at initiation to prevent serious reactions

Further reduction in insulin may be needed as dosage of pramlintide is adjusted


Diagnosis of gastroparesis

Hypoglycemia unawareness

A1C > 9.0%

Recurrent severe hypoglycemia requiring assistance during past 6 months

Using other medications that stimulate gastrointestinal motility


Pramlintide (Symlin®)
glycemic control
ADA Guidelines

A1C < 7.0%

<6.5 may further reduce complications

Fasting glucose 90-130 mg/dl

Peak postprandial glucose <180 mg/dl

1-2 hours after the start of the meal

AACE Guidelines

A1C < 6.5%

Fasting glucose < 110 mg/dl

2-h postprandial glucose <140 mg/dl

Glycemic Control
a1c and meal plasma glucose levels
A1C and Meal Plasma Glucose Levels
  • A1C should be as close to normal for the individual patient
  • Use less intensive goals for patients with risk for hypoglycemia
  • Target postprandial glucose if A1C goals not met after reaching preprandial goals
    • Target fasting glucose first!
self monitoring of blood glucose smbg
Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG)
  • At least 3 times/day if on insulin injections
  • If on orals, just use SMBG to help them achieve their glycemic goals
  • Use the data to make decisions on what therapy to add
lifestyle metformin step 1
Lifestyle + Metformin- Step 1
  • Titrate metformin to max dose over 1-2 months
  • TZDs and sitagliptin are also approved for monotherapy
  • Consider adding other oral medications if there is persistent hyperglycemia
  • Weight loss will reduce insulin resistance
  • Saturated fat < 7 % of total daily calories
  • Carbohydrates should be from fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, low fat milk
    • Low carb diets < 130 g/day not recommended for weight loss
  • Recommend sugar alcohols and nonnutritive sweeteners
  • Limit alcohol to 1 drink/day for women 2 drinks/day for men
    • If on insulin or a secretagogue drink alcohol with food to avoid hypoglycemia
  • 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity (50-70% of max heart rate)
  • 90 min/week of vigorous aerobic exercise (>70% of max heart rate)
  • Resistance exercise 3 times a week
  • Improves glycemia


diabetes self management education dsme
Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME)
  • All patients with diabetes should receive DSME after diagnosis
  • Teaches patients about the disease and how to improve self care
  • Should be conducted by either a CDE or health care professional with recent experience in diabetes management
additional medications step 2
Additional Medications - Step 2
  • Add within 2-3 months of initiation of therapy
  • Sulfonylurea
    • Cheapest option
  • TZDs
    • More expensive
    • Cardiac risk with rosiglitazone
  • Insulin
    • Most effective option
    • Consider in patients with A1C >8.5% or symptoms of hyperglycemia
    • Initiate with basal insulin
step 2 alternatives
Step-2 Alternatives
  • Sitagliptin
  • Glinides
  • Exenatide
step 3 initiate or intensify insulin therapy
Step-3 Initiate or intensify insulin therapy
  • Start or intensify insulin if lifestyle + metformin + a 2nd medication have not attained goal A1C
  • Third oral medication can be considered if A1C is close to goal <8.0%
    • Expensive, not as effective as insulin
    • Exenatide could be used at this step
  • D/C insulin secretagogues (sulfonylurea or glinides) when pre-prandial rapid insulin is started

Long Acting Insulin 10 units or 0.2 units/kg

Increase dose 2 units q 3 days until fasting levels 70-130 mg/dl

A1C ≥ 7% after 2-3 months?

Check pre-meal BG & add 2nd injection ~4 units before meal



Continue regimen Check A1C q 3 months

Pre-Bed high: Add rapid acting at dinner

Pre-Lunch BG high: Add rapid acting at breakfast

Pre-Dinner high: Add rapid acting at lunch

A1C ≥ 7% after 2-3 months?

Nathan DM, et al. Diabetes Care 2006;29


A1C ≥ 7% after 2-3 months?



Recheck pre-meal BG and add another injection.

Check 2-h postprandial BG and adjust pre-prandial insulin dose

Continue regimen and check A1C q 3 months

Nathan DM, et al. Diabetes Care 2006;29







case 1
  • JK is a 59 year old male presenting for a follow-up visit to the diabetes clinic.
  • Past Medical History
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Hypertension
    • Coronary artery disease
    • Chronic renal insufficiency
case 157

Metformin 1000 mg BID

Glyburide 10 mg BID

Pioglitazone 45 mg once daily

Metoprolol XL 50 mg once daily

Fosinopril 20 mg once daily

Aspirin 81 mg once daily

Labs (fasting)

Glucose 170 mg/dL

A1C 9.0%

SCr 1.7 mg/dL

CrCl 70 ml/min

case 158
  • Which diabetes medication on his profile is contraindicated and should be discontinued?
  • A. Metformin
  • B. Glyburide
  • C. Pioglitazone
case 159
  • Why?
  • A. Coronary artery disease
  • B. Renal insufficiency
  • C. Drug Interaction
  • D. Non-adherence
case 160
  • Which one of the following would be most appropriate to replace the discontinued medication?

A. Glipizide XL 20 mg PO once daily

B. Insulin aspart 4 units SC before breakfast

C. Insulin glargine 10 units SC at bedtime

D. Pramlintide 60 mcg SC before meals

complications of uncontrolled diabetes
Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes




Acute Toxicity

Chronic Toxicity

Tissue Lesions

Diabetic Complications



Nephropathy Neuropathy Retinopathy

PVD MI Stroke



Hanefeld M, et al. Diabet Med. 1997;14(suppl 3):S6


Adjusted Incidence

per 1000 person years







*Based on UKPDS 35 data

Stratton IM, et al. BMJ. 2000;321:405-12.

Relative Risk of Progression of Diabetic Complications by Mean HbA1c*

Updated Mean HbA1c (%)

macrovascular complication statistics
Macrovascular Complication Statistics
  • CVD and Stroke
    • Adults with DM have heart disease death rates 2-4x higher than non-diabetics
    • Risk for stroke is 2 to 4x higher and risk of death from stroke is 2.8x higher than in non-diabetics

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health, 2005.

macrovascular complications66
Macrovascular Complications

~ 80% of all diabetic mortality

75% from coronary atherosclerosis

25% from cerebral or peripheral vascular disease

> 75% of all hospitalizations for diabetic complications

> 50% of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes have CHD

National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes in America. 2nd. Ed. NIH; 1995.

insulin resistance and atherosclerosis
Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis

Insulin resistance



HypertriglyceridemiaDecreased HDL-C



Accelerated atherosclerosis

heart disease and diabetes
Heart Disease and Diabetes

Intensive treatment of hyperglycemia

Therapy for insulin resistance

Appropriate lipid management

Aggressive blood pressure control

Treatment of CVD in diabetes is similar to therapy for non-diabetic individuals, the risk of CVD is much higher and the benefits of therapy are greater


Defined as BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg

GOAL BP: < 130/80 mmHg

20 – 60% of Diabetics have HTN

Epidemiologic evidence from the UKPDS indicate that each 10 mmHg decrease in mean SBP results in:

 12% any DM complication

 15% any DM-related death

 11% MI

 13% microvascular complications

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:S4-S41.


Weight loss

 1 kg results in  of MAP ~ 1 mmHg

Sodium restriction

In non-diabetic patients reduces SBP ~ 5 mmHg and DBP ~2 - 3 mmHg

Drug Therapy (If SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or lifestyle modification failure)

1st choice: ACE-I or ARB

2nd choice: Thiazide, β-Blocker, or Non-DCCB

JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003;289:2560-72.

cholesterol management
Cholesterol Management


Fasting lipid panel at least annually

More often if needed to achieve goals

In adults with low-risk lipid values, may obtain fasting lipid panel every 2 years


LDL < 100 mg/dL

Optional: LDL <70 mg/dL

TG < 150 mg/dL


> 40 mg/dL for males

> 50 mg/dL for females

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care .2007;30:S4-S41.

macrovascular complications72
Macrovascular Complications

Aspirin Therapy: 75 – 162 mg/day

Primary prevention in those with ↑ CVD risk:

Family Hx of CVD

Tobacco use



Lipids: TC >200; LDL >100; HDL < 45 (or 55) & TG >200

Age ≥ 40 years

Secondary prevention in those with DM + CVD

Not recommended for patients < 30 years-old

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care .2007;30:S4-S41.

macrovascular complications73
Macrovascular Complications

Smoking cessation

Advise all patients not to smoke

Provide smoking cessation counseling and other forms of treatment if needed

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care .2007;30:S4-S41.


Macrovascular Complications




  • LDL < 100 mg/dL
    • Optimal < 70 mg/dL
  • TG < 150 mg/dL
  • HDL:
    • > 40 mg/dL – Male
    • > 50 mg/dL - Female
  • Blood Pressure:
  • < 130/80 mmHg


  • Weight loss
  • Sodium restriction
  • ACE-I / ARB
  • Statin
  • Everyone needs:
  • Aspirin
  • Lifestyle modifications
  • Smoking Cessation

Management Summary for Macrovascular Complications

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care .2007;30:S4-S41.


Relative Risk of Progression of Diabetic Complications by Mean HbA1c*


Diabetic retinopathy




















HbA1c (%)

*Based on DCCT data

Skyler JS ,et al. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996;25:243-54.

diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic Nephropathy

Occurs in 20 to 40% of diabetics

Most common cause of ESRD

ESRD develops in 50% of type 1 patients with overt nephropathy within 10 years

ESRD develops in about 20% of type 2 patients with overt nephropathy within 20 years

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:S4-S41.

nephropathy diagnosis
Nephropathy: Diagnosis

Category Spot Collection



Normal < 30

Microalbuminuria 30 - 299

Clinical albuminuria > 300

Two of three specimens collected within a 3-6 month period should be abnormal before diagnosing.

Exercise within 24 hr, infection, fever, CHF, marked hyperglycemia or HTN, pyuria, & hematuria may elevate urinary albumin excretion over baseline values

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:S4-S41.

nephropathy screening
Nephropathy: Screening


DM 1: Within 5 years of diagnosis

DM 2: Upon diagnosis

DM 1 and 2: Follow-up exams annually

If (+) for microalbuminuria, test twice more over next 3 to 6 months

If 2 of 3 tests are positive, they have microalbuminuria and should have treatment started

Serum creatinine should be measured at least annually for estimation of GFR

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:S4-S41

nephropathy treatment
Nephropathy: Treatment

Glycemic control: HbA1c < 7%

Blood pressure control: BP < 130/80 mmHg


Decrease progression of microalbuminuria and slow rate of decline in GFR in patients with proteinuria

Non-DCCBs, BB’s, or thiazide acceptable if intolerant to ACEI/ARB

If ACE-I, ARBs, or thiazide used, monitor K+

Protein restriction

With presence of nephropathy

≤ 0.8 g/kg per day (~ 10% of daily calories)

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:S4-S41

diabetic neuropathy


Muscle weakeness

Balance difficulties






Nighttime falls



Syncope, fatigue, sustained heart rate


Dysphagia, N/V, constipation, diarrhea


↓ bladder control, UTIs, ED, Dyspareunia


Dry skin, calluses, limb hair loss


Hypoglycemic unawareness


Depression, anxiety, sleep disorders

Diabetic Neuropathy
diabetic neuropathy screening
Diabetic Neuropathy Screening
  • Annual foot exam:
    • Assessment for protective sensation, foot structure and biomechanics, vascular status, and skin integrity.
      • Neurologic status assessed with 5.07 (10-g) monofilament
      • Also consider: pin-prick sensation, temperature and vibration perception (using tuning fork)
      • Assess for history of claudication, and assess pedal pulses
      • Assess skin integrity especially b/w toes and under metatarsal heads. Look for erythema, warmth, or callus formation (increased plantar pressure)
      • Bony deformities, limitation in joint mobility, and gait and balance should be assessed
diabetic neuropathy treatment
Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment
  • Glycemic control: HbA1c < 7%
  • Foot care
    • Proper footwear
    • Daily patient assessment
    • Moisturizing
      • Not between toes
    • NO bare feet!
peripheral neuropathy treatment
Peripheral Neuropathy Treatment
  • Optimal glycemic control: GOAL HbA1c < 7%

Wong M, et al. BMJ. 2007; 335; 1-10.

diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic Retinopathy

Normal Vision

Diabetic Retinopathy

Leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults (20 to 74 years of age).

Prevalence is strongly related to duration of diabetes.

diabetic retinopathy screening
Diabetic Retinopathy Screening
  • Comprehensive dilated eye exam:
    • DM 1: Within 3 to 5 years of diagnosis
    • DM 2: Upon diagnosis
    • DM 1 and 2: Follow-up exams annually

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:S4-S41.

diabetic retinopathy management
Diabetic Retinopathy Management
  • Tight glycemic control HbA1C < 7%
  • Tight blood pressure control <130/80 mmHg
    • Both shown to delay or prevent onset of retinopathy
management summary for microvascular complications
Management Summary for Microvascular Complications

Microvascular Complications





  • Comprehensive foot exam:
  • Inspection
  • Vascular
  • Vibratory perception
  • Monofilament
  • Annual Exam:
  • Dilated Eye
  • Retinal vessels
  • Cataract
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Annual Microalbumin:
  • Screen Albumin:
    • Creatinine ratio
    • Repeat to confirm


  • Glycemic Control
  • ACE-I / ARB
  • Glycemic Control
  • BP Control
  • Photocoagulation
  • Glycemic Control
  • Foot care/ footwear
  • Medication Management

Everyone needs lifestyle modifications

standards of care in diabetes

Standards of Care in Diabetes

Diabetes Care. 2007;30(suppl 1):S4-S41

medical history during the 1 st evaluation
Medical history during the 1st evaluation
  • Age and characteristics of onset of diabetes
  • Eating patterns
  • History of diabetes education
  • Previous and current treatments
  • Exercise history
  • Hypoglycemic episodes
  • History of DKA?
  • History of diabetes related complications
physical exam labs
Physical Exam


Fundoscopic exam

Thyroid palpation

Skin exam

Peripheral pulses

Patellar and achilles reflexes

Peripheral sensation

Labs to order


Fasting lipids



SCr and GFR


Physical Exam/Labs
health maintenance prevention of complications
Health Maintenance/Prevention of Complications
  • Influenza vaccine annually
  • Pneumococcal vaccine for all adults
  • Smoking cessation!
  • BP at every visit, goal < 130/80 mmHg
  • Check lipids annually: Goal LDL <100 mg/dL, TG <150 mg/dL, HDL >40 for men >50 for women
  • Annual test for microalbuminuria
  • Annual eye exam to screen for retinopathy
  • Annual screening for peripheral and autonomic neuropathy
  • Foot care
case 2
  • JT is a 58 year old male newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes
  • PMH
    • Dyslipidemia
  • SH: Tobacco 1 pack/day x 30 years; Rare ETOH use; denies illicit drug use; diet is high in carbohydrates and sugars and low in vegetables; physical activity “little to none”
case 294
  • How much exercise should you recommend for JT?

A. 90 minutes/week

B. 60 minutes/week

C. 150 minutes/week

D. 300 minutes/week

case 295
  • Which of the following should be done at diagnosis?

A. Eye exam

B. Test for microalbuminuria

C. Blood pressure

D. Fasting lipids

E. All of the above

case 296
  • JT’s blood pressure is 150/90, what would be your recommendation for initial therapy?

A. Fosinopril


C. Diltiazem

D. Metoprolol