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Independent Reading Workshop: “With Literacy for All”. Pathways to Independence in Secondary Classrooms. Presenter: Jeanne Sesky. A Place Called School , John Goodlad.

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Independent Reading Workshop:

“With Literacy for All”

Pathways to Independence

in Secondary Classrooms

Presenter: Jeanne Sesky


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A Place Called School, John Goodlad

“Less than 2 percent of each high school day was being spent on actual reading. In spite of research that supports independent reading time as a critical component in effective literacy programs… it affords “clocking up reading mileage”, many administrators and teachers have difficulty creating effective independent reading programs.


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Two Kinds of Silent Reading

S.S.R.

vs.

Independent Reading


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S.S.R.

  • Time is negotiated around other events

  • Not the main structure of a reading program

  • 10-15 minutes

  • Irregular/Not Daily

  • Low-Priority

  • Students randomly choose books at any reading level

  • No strategy instruction

  • Minimal response expected

  • No teacher check-in

  • No authentic assessment


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Independent Reading

  • Time is carefully planned

  • A main structure of reading program

  • 30-45 minutes

  • Strategies

  • Daily/Weekly routine built into schedule

  • Select books based on interest/reading level

  • Engage/Apply reading strategies

  • Rich/Deep response expected

  • Teacher acts as model

  • Small-Group/Individual conferencing

  • Teacher monitors growth through informal reading assessments



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Motivate

I sit in the classroom with nothing to do,

I don’t want to read,

Then you say, “It’s all up to you.”

I think to myself, “She must be crazy;

I can read and write,

But I’m too d--- lazy.”

Then it happens--and I take a

book off the shelf.

If I fail this class,

I’m failing myself.


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“I Can’t” Readers

  • need help finding a book

  • need help starting

  • need help sticking to it

  • need choices offered

  • need constant monitoring


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“I Don’t Know How” Readers

  • may get started and have a book (act like a student)

  • see no value in reading

  • reading doesn’t make sense to them

  • escape into other activities


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“I’d Rather” Readers

  • would rather do something else

  • can read, but choose not to

  • need to find a reason to read

  • have a variety of strategies in place

  • disengaged


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“I Don’t Care!” Readers

  • The most difficult to reach “non-reader”

  • Have well-built walls of disengagement

  • Are often avid, at/above grade-level readers

  • They do not “buy in” to traditional school settings

  • Respond best to extended/challenging activities


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“True readers and writers are ‘self-winding’ and choose to read and write well beyond the care and guidance of the school system.”

-- Margaret Mooney, 1991


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What Takes Readers off the Path? choose to read and write well beyond the care and guidance of the school system.”

  • Lack of interest or motivation

  • Insufficient/inappropriate resources

  • Standards/testing

  • Absence of support

  • Inability to break the language barrier

  • Insufficient background knowledge

  • Lack of reading strategies

  • Insufficient reading experience

  • Inappropriate teacher intervention


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Margaret Meek, choose to read and write well beyond the care and guidance of the school system.”Learning to Read:

“But no exercise, however well ordered, will have the same effect of a genuine reading task that encourages the reader to learn what he wants to know as a result of his own initiative.”

Lifelong learners are adept at making their own reading choices.


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The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement reportsthat “the most important factor in development of literacy is access to books.”


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How do you know what is enjoyable and interesting to your students?

What do you do to find out what they are interested in?

Suggestions:

Interviews

Surveys

Sentence Completions

Quick Polls

Listen to them

Talk to them

Book order forms/Amazon

Enjoyment


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How are your books arranged in your classrooms? students?

Are they displayed for appearance?

Are they organized by genre/theme?

Are they clearly labeled?

To encourage choice,

have plenty of fiction and non-fiction:

Poems

Magazines

Short stories

Picture books

Novels

Information books

Brochures

Genres


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Use Crates & Bins to separate titles, genres, themes… students?

http://reviews.ebay.com/Organizing-a-Classroom-Library-by-Genre-for-teachers_

W0QQugidZ10000000001884395


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Non-Fiction students?

How to Books

Science

History

Arts

Humor

Self-Help

Comics

Poetry

Fiction

Fantasy

Mystery

Humor

Historical Fiction

Science fiction

Romance

Adventure

Books for Girls

Books for Boys

Genres


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Ideas for Environment students?

  • Time of reading in instructional sequence

  • Seating arrangement: bean bags, pillows, solo seating, small-group seating, library access/passes

  • Lighting

  • Noise (white noise)

  • Audio Books: Recorded Books, Listening Library, Scholastic

  • Accountability: supportive tone, Status of the Class

    TIP: Ask your kids, “What gets in the way of reading?”


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Map Your Room students?

Locations:

  • Small-group instruction

  • Independent seating

  • Direction of desks

  • Audio-Support

    Consider how you will organize your library

    Consider how and when students may check out books.

    Consider how you will train students to use movement.


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Independent reading students?

is a unique and challenging approach to reading instruction. Teachers often struggle to let go of control in terms of book selection and assessment.

Release of Responsibility encourages students to…

Consider their time

Begin to make choices

Learn when to abandon a book

Learn to find books according to: genre, author, topic, themes

Find out that they can control their reading

Letting Go


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Supports for Independence students?

Read Alouds

Shared Reading

Guided Reading

“I believe that an assessment measure for effectiveness of these supports is whether those approaches led to engaged readers who display independence.”

-- Janet Allen,

Yellow Brick Roads

Release of Responsibility


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Guiding students towards appropriate choices… students?

Book Pass

Book Blurbs

Book Talks

www.scholastic.com/librarians/ab/booktalks.htm

Book Reviews

http://nancykeane.com/booktalks/reviews.htm

Book Boards/Postings

Let Me See


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Choosing the “Just Right” Book students?

  • The Five Finger Rule

  • Tell your students that if they are not sure if the book is

  • "just right" or not then they can use the Five Finger Rule

  • to help them decide.

    • 1. Open to a page of the book.

    • 2. Begin reading.

    • 3. Each time you come to a word you don’t know, hold up 1 finger.

    • 4. After you finish reading the page,

    • check to see how many fingers you are holding up.

  • Too Easy: 0 - 1 fingers

  • Just Right: 2 - 3 fingers

  • Too Hard: 4 - 5 fingers


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    Cognitive students?

    Reading endurance

    Word knowledge

    World knowledge

    Reading fluency

    Content knowledge

    Comprehension

    Writing ability

    Affect

    Motivation

    Connectedness

    Community

    Sense of self

    Self-directedness

    Empathy

    Mental control

    Outcomes


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    Environment students?

    High affect for reading

    Distraction-free

    Comfortable

    Personal

    Supportive

    Audio books

    Conferencing

    Interactive

    Structures to Increase Independence

    Welcoming display

    Choice

    Topics of interest

    Self-inquiry

    Genre

    Author knowledge

    Connections

    Access

    Level of Involvement

    Authentic context

    Engaging Readers


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    Summative Assessment students?

    No turning back…

    STAR

    SRI

    Reading Counts

    A/R

    … less diagnostic information

    Authentic Assessment

    Informs my instruction…

    Reading Logs

    Reading journals

    Informal Inventories

    Running Records

    Conferencing

    Writing

    Performance Tasks

    Why Authentic Assessment?


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    Word Walls are not just for little kids! students?

    They work to focus your instruction and to act as a reminder of which academic and content vocabulary you are holding students accountable to learning

    Example

    A-B

    accountability

    acrid

    asymmetrical

    bilateral

    Word Walls


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    Using Language Frames as a Scaffold students?

    Solid repetition, using the same language frames and practicing the highlighting technique provides for authentic practice of careful reading strategies that can be transferred into the students' reading of other materials and also provides a scaffold for those students who are not yet in full production stages of their English acquisition.

    Language Frames to use while modeling lesson:

    • I see ___________________.

    • This makes me think _______________________.

    • I'm still wondering_______________________?


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    Why Support ELD? students?

    This kind of explicit instruction permits ELLs the kind of structure and guided practice needed to build solid understandings of how to interpret different kinds of texts that will be given to them to read in an array of contexts. If the ELL can comprehend the message a text is trying to convey and they use questioning, inferring and observing to do this, it will help build their reading skills, which in turn will help with their acquisition of English itself.


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    Ways to Support Oral Language Development students?

    • Sentence Frames/Sentence Starters

    • Book-Talk Time, Book Blurbs, Read Alouds

    • Time to read other students’ responses

    • Paired-Reading

    • Audio Books

    • Consider readability/age appropriateness/cultural diversity; also, lexiles, ZPD, or reading levels


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    Wellness Check Up students?

    • High-level of student engagement

    • Sense of shared community

    • Plethora of reading material

    • Students know what’s expected

    • Students know how they are accountable

    • Students show strategies/independence without supports

    • Assessments reveal increasing comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and writing skills

    • Students WANT to read!!!


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