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Forklift Operator Training . 29 CFR 1910.178. Is Forklift Training Necessary?. About 100 deaths each year About 95,000 accidents each year Bankruptcy New OSHA training standard. Forklift Operating Goals. Hazards and forklift stability Inspecting and operating a forklift Quiz.

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Forklift Operator Training

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is forklift training necessary
Is Forklift Training Necessary?
  • About 100 deaths each year
  • About 95,000 accidents each year
  • Bankruptcy
  • New OSHA training standard
forklift operating goals
Forklift Operating Goals
  • Hazards and forklift stability
  • Inspecting and operating a forklift
  • Quiz
authorized operator
Authorized Operator
  • Only trained and authorized personnel are permitted to operate a forklift
  • Keep unauthorized employees off of forklifts
  • Keep pedestrians away from the operating zone of a forklift
  • Lock out unsafe lifts as determined in a preoperation inspection
operating hazards
Operating Hazards
  • Workplace hazards: ramps, railroad tracks, slippery floors, poor lighting, congestion
  • Loads: large or bulky, uneven weight, broken pallets, poorly stacked
  • Pedestrians: horseplay, unaware of forklift areas, not paying attention
  • OSHA requires a legible nameplate
  • Includes modifications & attachments
  • Capacity
  • Load center
center of gravity
Center of Gravity






Balance point

Distance from the edge of the item to the item’s center of gravity

load center
Load Center





  • Distance from vertical face of the forks to the load’s center of gravity
    • A: Load center = 24"
    • B: Load center = 40"
  • 1 inch = 100 lbs
  • Important reason for keeping the load resting against the vertical face of forks
stability triangle
Stability Triangle
  • Forklift’s center of gravity

3-point suspension

  • Combined center of gravity
  • Load center beyond 24"
combined actions
Combined Actions
  • Center of gravity moves side to side
  • Center of gravity moves forward
  • Center of gravity moves backward to the thin portion of the triangle
  • Specific operator training
  • Weight of attachments
  • Increased load center
tipping over
Tipping Over
  • Do not jump
  • Hold onto the steering wheel
  • Brace your feet
  • Lean away from the fall
forklift operating goals13
Forklift Operating Goals
  • Hazards and forklift stability
  • Inspecting and operating a forklift
  • Quiz
preoperation inspection
Preoperation Inspection
  • As an authorized operator, it is your responsibility to make sure your forklift functions properly
  • OSHA requires preoperation inspections
  • Company wants to comply with OSHA and be sure equipment is maintained
walk around
Walk Around
  • Forklift properly disengaged
    • Forks down, key off, neutral gear, parking brake on
  • Left/right side
    • Tire condition, tight lug nuts, no debris around axle, overhead guard is solid, no debris behind the mast
  • Front
    • Forks in good shape, fork pins in place, backrest solid, mast & chains greased, hoses in good shape
  • Rear
    • Counterbalance bolt is tight, radiator clear of debris
in the seat
In the Seat
  • Nonmoving checks
    • Gauges, lights, horn, back-up alarm, blinking warning light, operate the tilt & lift mechanism, check the parking brake
  • Moving checks
    • Put on the seat belt, check the running brakes, check the steering
  • Look for oil or water leaks on the floor
operating a lift truck
Operating a Lift Truck
  • Only trained, authorized operators
  • Immediately report forklift-related accidents
  • Seat belts must always be worn
  • No person should stand under elevated portion of lift truck
  • Forklift controls operated only from driver’s seat
  • Never block exits or emergency equipment
  • Smoking is not permitted
loading unloading
  • Before raising a load, understand:
    • Approximate weight of the load
    • Location of the load’s center of gravity
  • Inspect load for stability, projections, damaged pallets before lifting
  • Restack unstable loads
  • Never place weight on the back of a lift truck to increase its capacity
  • Towing always done from rear towing pin
  • Always look in the direction of travel
  • Keep body inside the cage
  • When moving, the mast must not be raised
  • Sound the horn
  • Operate at safe speeds
  • When turning, watch rear end swing
  • Clearance under overhead installations
traveling cont
Traveling (cont.)
  • Avoid loose objects or holes
  • If load blocks view, travel in reverse
  • Never carry passengers
  • Pedestrians always have the right-of-way
  • Safe distance from edge of ramps or docks
  • Never eat or drink
  • No stunt driving or horseplay
ramps and railroads
Ramps and Railroads
  • Never turn on a ramp
  • On ramps the load should be upgrade
  • Ascend or descend ramps slowly
  • Railroad tracks are crossed diagonally
  • Never park within 8 feet of the center of railroad tracks
  • Inspect the dock plate
  • Check the trailer floor condition
  • Trailer wheels are chocked
  • Nose of the trailer is supported by the tractor or a fixed jack
  • Lower the forks
  • Set gear to neutral
  • Set the parking brake
  • Turn off the key
propane refueling
Propane Refueling
  • Propane is a combustible, compressed gas
  • Propane leaks are detected by:
    • Distinct odor
    • Hissing sound
    • Frost on fittings
  • PPE: gloves, safety glasses
battery charging
Battery Charging
  • Inspect battery connectors for damage
  • No smoking in battery-charging area
  • Immediately clean up electrolyte spills
  • PPE includes face mask, acid-resistant gloves, and an apron
forklift operating goals26
Forklift Operating Goals
  • Hazards and Forklift Stability
  • Inspecting and Operating a Forklift
  • Quiz
  • Facility hazards
  • Load center and capacity
  • Preoperation inspection
  • Rules of the road
  • Refueling

1. If your forklift has a rearview mirror, looking behind you is not necessary. True or False

2. Name two of the three ways to detect a propane leak: _______________, _______________

3. Describe the four items that must be completed prior to driving your forklift into a trailer.

4. If a load blocks your vision, it is OK to raise the load while moving to see under it. True or False

5. Preoperation inspections are done only because OSHA says we have to do them. True or False

quiz cont
Quiz (cont.)

6. Attachments reduce capacity by increasing the load center and adding weight. True or False

7. Minimum PPE items required when refueling a propane tank are ___________, ____________.

8. The most important differences between a forklift and a car are weight and steering. True or False

9. Name at least one condition that when combined with turning sharply may cause a tipover.

10. Pedestrians have the right-of-way only while in designated pedestrian lanes. True or False

quiz answers
Quiz Answers

1. False. You must always look behind you before backing up.

2. Hissing sound, distinct odor, or frost on fittings.

3. Chock the wheels, support the nose of the trailer, inspect the dock plate, check the trailer floor.

4. False. Never drive with the load up. Drive in reverse when the load obstructs forward vision.

5. False. Inspections are also done so that the operator can prevent mechanical failure accidents and because the company needs to prove compliance with OSHA’s requirement.

quiz answers cont
Quiz Answers (cont.)

6. True. Attachments are heavy, and they cause the load center to move away from the forklift.

7. Gloves and safety glasses are the minimum PPE required.

8. True. There are many differences, but the most significant are weight and steering.

9. Hitting a pothole, carrying an off-center load, getting a flat tire, having a raised & tilted back load, or being on a ramp.

10. False. Pedestrians always have the right of way.