Fire Apparatus Pump Theory

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Fire Apparatus Pump Theory. Section 180. Introduction . Types of pressure encountered in the fire service Identify the types of fire pumps &amp; components of pumps Identify the function, theory, principles of operation of fire pumps. 180-1.00.

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Fire Apparatus Pump Theory

Section 180

Introduction
• Types of pressure encountered in the fire service
• Identify the types of fire pumps & components of pumps
• Identify the function, theory, principles of operation of fire pumps

180-1.00

Types of pressures encountered in the fire service
• Static pressure
• Residual pressure
• Flow pressure
• Normal operating pressure
• Negative pressure

180-1.01

Static pressure
• The pressure exerted in all directions

at a point in a fluid at rest

Static pressure is stored potential

energy that is available to force water

through a pipe, fittings, fire hose

180-1.01a

Residual pressure
• The pressure remaining in a system while water is flowing

The total available pressure not used

to overcome friction or gravity while

forcing water through pipes, fittings,

180-1.01c

Flow pressure
• The forward velocity pressure at a discharge opening when water is flowing

The rate of flow {velocity} of the water

coming from the discharge opening produces

this force called velocity or flow pressure

180-1.01d

Normal operating pressure
• The pressure found in the water distribution system during normal consumption demands

Occurs when some water is flowing in

the system

180-1.01b

Negative pressure
• Also called vacuum . Pressure that is less than atmospheric pressure

Negative pressure in the fire service is the

result of drafting operations, which results

from removing all the air from the pump

& using atmospheric pressure to lift water

from a source lower than the pump

180-1.01e

Atmospheric pressure – the atmosphere that surrounds the earth has depth & density & exerts pressure upon everything on earth

Capacity – The maximum amount of water

a pump will deliver at the indicated pressure

Displacement – Movement of a given amount

of a fluid w/ each stoke of a pump

Flow {GPM} – Gallons per minute, the

measurement of the amount of water

moved through a fire pump

Friction loss – Loss of pressure created by the

turbulence of water moving against the

interior walls of the hose or pipe.

Head Pressure (gain of loss) – Water pressure

due to elevation. For every 1’ increase in

elevation, 0.434 psi is gained. 1 M in

height 10 kPa is gained

Hydrant pressure – The force of water when

it enters the pump from the

distribution system

Net engine pressure – The actual amount of

pressure being produced by the pump

Nozzle reaction – The counterforce directed

against the people or device holding a nozzle

by the velocity of water being discharged

Pound per square inch PSI -

Pump discharge pressure – The actual

velocity pressure (measured in PSI) if the

water as it leaves the pump & enters the

hose line.

Vacuum – A pressure that is less than

normal atmospheric pressure

Velocity – The rate of motion of a particle

in a given direction, speed

Water hammer – When the flow of water is

suddenly stopped, the resulting surge is

referred to as a water hammer

Break

Break Time!!

Thank Goodness

Compound gauge – A gauge connected to the

intake side of the pump that is capable of

measuring positive & negative intake

pressures

Discharge/pressure gauge – A gauge on the

discharge side of the pump that registers the

pump discharge pressure

180-1.03

Suction

Pressure