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Energy Outlook Life Goes On After Fossil Depletion. Shijie Liu Faculty of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering & Empire State Paper Research Institute SUNY ESF 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, New York. Outline. Energy Resources Biomass Based Energy & Chemicals Paper Industry

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energy outlook life goes on after fossil depletion

Energy OutlookLife Goes On After Fossil Depletion

Shijie Liu

Faculty of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering

& Empire State Paper Research Institute

SUNY ESF

1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, New York

ESPRI / PBE

outline
Outline
  • Energy Resources
  • Biomass Based Energy & Chemicals
  • Paper Industry
    • Near-term Application: Hot-water Extraction
    • Wood Extract Use
    • Alkaline Pulping & Fiber Quality
    • Black Liquor Gasification
  • Conclusion
  • Life Goes on After Fossil Depletion

ESPRI / PBE

energy resources
Energy Resources
  • Sun
    • Hydro, plants
  • Hydro and Geothermal Energy
    • Location
    • Environmental / ecological
  • Plants
    • Biomass
    • Animals
  • Coal, Petroleum
  • Nuclear Energy

ESPRI / PBE

us pulp and paper industry
US Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Main raw material: forest wood
  • Accounts for 6.9% Coal, Oil, Gas and Electricity of all manufacturing industries
  • 1.3% total US fossil energy consumption
  • 1.1% of all US energy
  • 0.27% of the world energy diet

ESPRI / PBE

energy resources1
Energy Resources

ESPRI / PBE

energy resources2
Energy Resources
  • Availability
    • Quality
    • Technology
  • Reliability
    • Proximity
    • Stability
  • Affordability
    • Economical
    • Environmental
    • Societal

Equivalence in energy

wood to petroleum:

$100 / ton  $34 / Barrel

ESPRI / PBE

environmental impact
Environmental Impact

Greenhouse gases (GHG) are increasing: in 2000, the atmosphere held about 774 Pg (774 billion metric tonnes) of carbon as CO2, 369 vppm (Marland & Boden, 2001). The total will double by the end of this century if not controled. To stabilize CO2 at about 550 vppm, it is necessary to reduce net GHG emissions.

USA alone is expected to release 1.8 Pg of carbon in 2010 and 2.1 Pg of carbon in 2020, about 25% of the world total (EIA 2000).

Most of current carbon emission is a direct result of the use of fossil fuels.

SEEK NEW SUBSTITUTED FUEL derived from biomass

Ethanol, butanol, acetone

USA Government: displacing 10% of the petroleum with biomass derived fuel and products by 2020. (DOE Vision for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States, October 2002).

ESPRI / PBE

slide9

Why Biomass?

CO2, H2O

energy

(CH2O)n

O2

O2

ESPRI / PBE

pulp and paper industry
Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Unique Position

Raw materials

Material handling capacity

Experience

  • Question to answer:

Can wood be harvested and chipped when fossil energy had been exhausted?

ESPRI / PBE

paper industry

Paper

Plant Biomass

Volatile

Lignin

Cellulose

Hemicelluloses

Extractives

Sugars

Chemicals

Energy

Biodegradable

Ethanol

Bio-Diesel

Butanol

Plastics

Paper Industry
wood composition
Wood Composition
  • Inorganic Components

K & Ca (400 ~ 1000 ppm);

Mg & P (100 ~ 400 ppm) ; and 70 others

  • Extractives

Aliphatic and alicyclic: Terpenes; terpenoids; esters; fatty acids; alcohols; …

Phenolic: phenols; stilbenes; lignans; isoflavones; …

Others: sugars; cyclitols; tropolones; amino acids, …

  • Hemicelluloses
  • Celluloses

ESPRI / PBE

slide13

(phenols)

ESPRI / PBE

hemicelluloses
Hemicelluloses
  • Hardwood:
    • Glucomannan
    • Glucuronoxylan (Xylan)
  • Softwood:
    • Galactoglucomannan
    • Arabinoglucuronoxylan (Xylan)
  • Xylan: Polymer of 5-Carbon Sugar

ESPRI / PBE

near term applications
Near-term Applications
  • Biorefinery
  • Extraction prior to Pulping
  • Fractionation of Wood Extracts
  • Fermentation
  • Black Liquor Gasification

ESPRI / PBE

slide16

Near-term Application

Energy

Bark

Value-added chemicals

Debarking

Wood chipping

Wood harvesting

Wood chips

Extraction

Hemicellulose

fermentation

Butanol

Pulping

Degraded Lignin and carbohydrates

Lactic acid

Bioethanol

Bleaching

Energy

Biodegradable polymer

Papermaking

ESPRI / PBE

hot water extraction
Hot-Water Extraction
  • Abundant
  • Safety, Environmental, Reuse
  • Catalyst Use
  • Product Value
  • Product Separation

ESPRI / PBE

hot water extraction1

Residual Wood: 81.8%

44.7% Glucan

8.8% Xylan

0.0% Galactan

0.0% Arabinan

1.2% Manan

20.9% Klason Lignin

6.2% Others

Autocatalytic Extraction

150C, 4.5h

Wood Extracts: 18.2%

0.7% Glucan

9.1% Xylan

0.8% Galactan

0.4% Arabinan

0.6% Manan

1.1% Klason Lignin

5.5% Others

Hot-Water Extraction

Aspen Wood

Glucan: 44.5%

Xylan: 17.7%

Galactan: 1.3%

Arabinan: 0.5%

Mannan: 1.7%

Klason Lignin: 21.1%

Others: 13.2%

Data from: U. Tschirner, et al. (2006)

ESPRI / PBE

fractionation
Fractionation
  • Acetic Acid
  • Acetates
  • Hexoses, Pentoses
  • Oligomers
  • Methanol
  • Aromatics
  • Furfurals
  • Catalyst

ESPRI / PBE

ethanol production
Ethanol Production
  • Anaerobic Fermentation: Sugar is Sugar

C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2

3C5H10O5 5 C2H5OH + 5 CO2

Theoretical yield: 51.14% (lb-ethanol/lb-sugar)

  • “Poly-glucose”: (Cellulose, glucomannan, …)

HO(C6H10O5)nH + (n–1)H2O  2nC2H5OH + 2nCO2

Contribution of water adds to 56.82%

  • “Poly-xylose”: (Xylan)

3HO(C5H8O4)nH + 3(n–1)H2O  5nC2H5OH + 5nCO2

Contribution of water adds to 58.12%

ESPRI / PBE

effect of hot water extraction
Effect of Hot-Water Extraction
  • Hemicelluloses removal
    • Uronic acid
    • Acetyl groups
    • Carboxyl groups
    • Metal ions
  • Lignin
    • Lignin-hemicellulose bonds
    • Active chemical agent access to lignin sites

ESPRI / PBE

alkaline pulping fiber quality
Alkaline Pulping & Fiber Quality
  • Mild cooking / bleaching conditions
  • Sulfur-free if desired
    • Environmental
    • Black Liquor Gasification
  • TCF ?
  • Low Hemicelluloses content
    • High Freeness for the same other indices
    • High SEC to reduce freeness
  • Fiber-Fiber bonding
  • Bulk

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advantages
Advantages
  • Bottom Line improvement
  • Environmental benign modification to existing processes enabling
    • Sulfur use on the way out
    • Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, on the way out
    • Value-added chemical and energy byproducts
  • Kraft Process?

ESPRI / PBE

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Biorefinery: a strategic direction to Energy and Chemicals
  • ESF Biorefinery: water-based technology
  • Pulp and Paper Industry Adaptation: Extraction; Fractionation; Fermentation; Pulping; Bleaching; Papermaking; Black Liquor Gasification

ESPRI / PBE

conclusions1
Conclusions
  • Future depends on renewable energy and chemicals
  • Pulp and Paper Industry potential to play as a leader
  • Life will go on when fossil energy is depleted

ESPRI / PBE

life after fossil depletion
Life After Fossil Depletion
  • Automobiles

Butanol; Propanol; Ethanol; Hydrogen

  • Airplane

Butanol; Propanol; Hydrogen

  • Tractors, Combines, …

Butanol; Ethanol; Bio-diesel

  • Cooking, Heating and Lighting

Green power; Bio-gas; Bio-diesel; Bio-oil

ESPRI / PBE

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

ESPRI

SPPF

PBE Staff

ESF

  • T.E. Amidon
  • G.M. Scott
  • R.C. Francis
  • B.V. Ramarao
  • Y.Z. Lai

Colleagues, Students, and Research Fellows

ESPRI / PBE

thank you
Thank You!

ESPRI / PBE

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