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Employee learning. Chapter 10. Employee learning. Objectives Discuss how training can help companies gain a competitive advantage. Explain how to conduct a needs assessment. Explain how to evaluate employees’ readiness for training.

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Employee learning l.jpg

Employee learning

Chapter 10


Employee learning2 l.jpg
Employee learning

  • Objectives

    • Discuss how training can help companies gain a competitive advantage.

    • Explain how to conduct a needs assessment.

    • Explain how to evaluate employees’ readiness for training.

    • Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of presentation, hands-on and group-building training methods.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Employee learning3 l.jpg
Employee learning

  • Objectives (continued)

    • Explain the potential advantages of new technologies for training.

    • Design a training session to maximise learning.

    • Explain how to choose an appropriate evaluation design.

    • Discuss socialisation and orientation processes.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Employee learning also learning or training l.jpg
Employee learning (also learning, or training)

  • A planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.

  • Competencies include knowledge, skills or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Why is training important?

  • Increases employees’ knowledge of foreign competitors and cultures.

  • Provides the skills required to work with new technology.

  • Helps employees understand how to work effectively in teams.

  • Ensures that the company’s culture emphasises innovation, creativity and learning.

  • Ensures employment security by providing new ways for employees to contribute to the company.

  • Prepares employees to accept each other and work more effectively together, particularly in a diverse workforce.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Intellectual capital

  • Training should be viewed as a way to create intellectual capital.

  • Intellectual capital includes basic skills, advanced skills, an understanding of the customer or manufacturing system, and self-motivated creativity.

  • Intellectual capital is created through a process of combining the knowledge and experience of different parties and exchange between the parties.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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High-leverage training strategy

  • Is linked to strategic business goals and objectives.

  • Uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective.

  • Compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against training programs in other companies.

  • Is a characteristic of a ‘learning organisation’.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Learning organisations l.jpg
Learning organisations

  • Employees continuously attempt to learn new things and apply what they have learned to improve product or service quality.

  • An organisation that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change.

  • In a learning organisation, training is seen as one part of a system designed to create intellectual capital.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Components of instructional design

  • Conducting needs assessment

  • Ensuring employees’ readiness for training

  • Creating a learning environment

  • Ensuring transfer of training

  • Selecting training methods

  • Evaluating training programs

  • See Table 10.2 for more detail

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Figure 10.1 The needs assessment process

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Organisational analysis

  • Organisational analysis involves considering the context in which training will occur.

  • Three factors need to be considered before choosing training as the solution to any pressure point:

    • Support of managers and peers for training activities

    • Company strategy

    • Training resources available.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Person analysis

  • Person analysis helps to identify who needs training.

  • Person analysis involves:

    • Determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work-design problem

    • Identifying who needs training

    • Determining employee’s readiness for training.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Person analysis

  • Factors that influence employee performance and learning:

    • Personal characteristics

    • Input

    • Output

    • Consequences

    • Feedback

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Task analysis l.jpg
Task analysis

  • Identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skills and behaviours that need to be emphasised in training, in order for employees to complete their tasks.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Task analysis

  • Four steps:

    • Select the job to be analysed.

    • Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed on the job.

    • Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks.

    • Once the tasks are confirmed, identify the knowledge, skills or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Readiness for training

  • Employees have the personal characteristics (ability, attitudes, beliefs, and motivation) necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job.

  • The work environment will facilitate learning and will not interfere with performance.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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How can managers ensure employee readiness for training?

  • Ensure employees’ self-efficacy.

  • Understand the benefits of training.

  • Be aware of training needs, career interests and goals.

  • Understand work environment characteristics.

  • Ensure employees’ basic skills levels.

  • Also consider input, output, consequences and feedback.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Creating a learning environment l.jpg
Creating a learning environment

  • Employees need to:

    • Know why they should learn

    • Use their own experiences as a basis for learning

    • Have opportunities to practise

    • Receive feedback

    • Learn by observing and interacting with others

    • Undergo a well coordinated and arranged training program.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Figure 10 3 transfer of training l.jpg
Figure 10.3 Transfer of training

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Selecting training methods l.jpg
Selecting training methods

  • Presentation methods

    • Classroom instruction

    • Distance learning

    • Audiovisual techniques

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Selecting training methods

  • Hands-on methods

    • On-the-job training (OJT)

    • Self-directed learning

    • Apprenticeship

    • Simulations

    • Business games and case studies

    • Behaviour modelling

    • Interactive video

    • E-learning

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Selecting training methods22 l.jpg
Selecting training methods

  • Group-building methods

    • Adventure learning

    • Team training

    • Action learning

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Evaluating training programs l.jpg
Evaluating training programs

  • Training outcomes:

    • Cognitive outcomes

    • Skill-based outcomes

    • Affective outcomes

    • Results

    • Return on investment (ROI)

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Reasons for evaluating training

  • To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses.

  • To assess whether the content, organisation and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job.

  • To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program.

  • To gather data to assist in marketing programs.

  • To determine the financial benefits and costs of the program.

  • To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments.

  • To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs, so as to choose the best program.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Evaluation designs l.jpg
Evaluation designs

  • Pre-test/post-test with comparison group

  • Pre-test/post-test

  • Post-test only

  • Time series

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Socialisation and orientation

  • Organisational socialisation:

    • The process by which new employees are transformed into effective members of a company.

  • Three phases:

    • Anticipatory socialisation

    • Encounter

    • Settling in

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Orientation programs(see Table 10.9 for more detail)

  • Content of orientation programs

    • Company-level information

    • Department-level information

    • Miscellaneous

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


Table 10 10 characteristics of effective orientation programs l.jpg
Table 10.10 Characteristics of effective orientation programs

  • Employees are encouraged to ask questions.

  • Program includes information on both technical and social aspects of the job.

  • Orientation is the responsibility of the new employee’s manager.

  • Debasement and embarrassment of new employees is avoided.

  • Formal and informal interactions with managers and peers occur.

  • Programs involve relocation assistance.

  • Employees are provided with information about the company’s products, services and customers.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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Summary programs

  • Many companies are using new technology to give employees control of their learning and career development.

  • A systematic approach to training has been presented.

  • The key to successful training is to choose a method that will best accomplish the training objectives.

  • Training can contribute to effectiveness through establishing a link with the company’s strategic direction, and demonstrating return on investment.

Copyright  2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.

PPTs t/a Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy-People-Performance

by De Cieri & Kramar


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