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Digital Rights Management. Brian P. Bailey Spring 2006. Announcements. Bin Yu speaking this coming Friday Send me HW4, evaluation results, and presentation plans via email otherwise drop off to Anda Ohlsson (3120). Presentation Schedule (In order). April 28 Victor and Daniel

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Digital Rights Management

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digital rights management

Digital Rights Management

Brian P. BaileySpring 2006

  • Bin Yu speaking this coming Friday
  • Send me HW4, evaluation results, and presentation plans via email
    • otherwise drop off to Anda Ohlsson (3120)
presentation schedule in order
Presentation Schedule (In order)
  • April 28
    • Victor and Daniel
    • David and Matt
  • May 1
    • Chris and Jay
    • Sid and Anshul
    • Michael and Sangjoon
  • 15-20 minutes to present your project
today s goals
Today’s Goals
  • Basics of copyright and patent (IP) law
    • application of IP law to software
  • DRM must balance prevention of copyright infringement with allowing for fair use
  • Examine two existing DRM systems
    • MacroVision for VHS tapes
    • Apple’s FairPlay technology for ITunes
basis for u s copyright law
Basis for U.S. Copyright Law

U.S. Constitution (A1, S8, C8) states:

"Congress shall have power . . . to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries”

origins of copyright
Origins of Copyright
  • Trace to introduction of printing press in England in late 15th century
    • control (censor) publication of books
    • maintain registry of legal books
  • 1710, passed law to protect authors’ works
    • prevent another person from re-producing a book and putting their name on it
balance two competing goals
Balance Two Competing Goals
  • Protect works of an author long enough so the author can obtain financial reward
  • Allow access to promote public discourse and progress of science and useful arts
u s copyright law
U.S. Copyright Law
  • Gives exclusive rights for limited time
    • reproduce the work, derive new works, distribute copies, perform or display it publicly
    • set at life of author plus 70 years
  • Applies to “original works of authorship” fixed in tangible medium of expression
    • literary, dramatic, artistic, musical, pictorial, architectural, etc. works
who can claim copyright
Who Can Claim Copyright
  • Almost anyone, but many special cases
    • e.g., work was produced in a foreign country, or non-citizen produces work in the U.S.
  • Applies as soon as original work is fixed
    • no formal registration is required
    • employer almost always owns copyrights
  • Ownership does not imply copyright
how to claim copyright
How to Claim Copyright
  • Act of publication with notice of copyright
    • e.g., “© 2006 Name of Owner”
    • give reasonable notice of claim of copyright
  • Act of registration of unpublished works
    • establishes date of authorship (thus also recommended for published works)
    • register with U.S. Copyright Office
copyright does not protect
Copyright Does Not Protect:
  • Works not fixed in a tangible form
  • Ideas, procedures, methods, processes, systems, principles, discoveries, etc.
  • Work composed solely of common property with no transformative value
  • Gives patent holder exclusive rights to a disclosed invention for a limited time
    • time is currently set at 20 years
  • Inventions
    • can be products, methods, processes, apparatus, etc.
    • cannot be obvious to a person of ordinary skill in the respective domain
ip dilemma of software
IP Dilemma of Software
  • Copyright argument
    • programming is a form of artistic expression
    • no two algorithms programmed the same way
  • Patent argument
    • applications represent software products
    • software implements processes or methods
fair use
Fair Use
  • Legal use of copyrighted works for education, research, reporting, etc.
    • must provide transformative value
  • Determined by four factors
    • purpose and character of the use
    • nature of the copyrighted work
    • amount of the copyrighted work used
    • effect on market value of copyrighted work
two perspectives
Two Perspectives
  • Affirmative perspective
    • allows copying in specific circumstances
  • Defensive perspective
    • defend copyright infringement
examples of fair use
Examples of Fair Use
  • Citing short passages of a book for a term paper
  • Making a backup copy of a CD for personal use
  • Song parodies
technology enabled infringement
Technology-enabled Infringement
  • Unprecedented speed and reach
    • beyond what has been previously possible
  • Technology enables the circumvention of the concept of copyright protection
  • Combat with DRM and punitive legislation
digital rights management18
Digital Rights Management
  • Mission: protect rights of digital media producers while enabling access for fair use
    • grant exclusive rights in exchange for disclosure
  • Reality: DRM is just protection technology, and is fast eroding our rights of fair use
    • may never be able to reuse parts of any digital content (documents, film, images, audio, etc.)
    • hinders progress of science and the useful arts
protection technology
Protection Technology
  • Any technology designed to prohibit access to a copyrighted work
    • e.g., algorithms for content encryption
  • Protects rights of the author, but
    • prohibits fair use
    • prohibits public access
    • never expires
digital millennium copyright act
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
  • Illegal to develop or distribute any mechanism to circumvent protections
    • e.g., demonstrating weaknesses in encryption algorithms or posting algorithm to a website
  • Education and research on DRM may become dormant for fear of lawsuits
    • allowed only via exceptions to the DMCA
research paradox
Research Paradox
  • Develop more sophisticated methods to encrypt digital media content
  • Erodes our rights to use digital media
macrovision 1985
MacroVision (1985-)
  • Copy protection technique for VHS tapes
  • Inserts special signals into the vertical blanking interval of NTSC protocol
    • affects automatic gain control in most VCRs, but is ignored by most televisions
    • difficult to remove from the original signal
  • Makes subsequent recordings shake and have periods of bright and dark frames
apple s fairplay technology
Apple’s FairPlay Technology
  • DRM for iTunes
    • playing, recording, and sharing of files
  • Moves beyond “protection only”
    • allows media to be shared among devices
    • allows others to listen to (but not copy) music
    • allows music to be burned to an audio CD, which loses the DRM protection
how fairplay works
How FairPlay Works
  • iTunes uses encrypted MP4 audio files
  • Acquire decryption key by trying to play song
    • player generates a unique ID
    • sends this ID to the iTunes server
    • if there are fewer than N authorizations in your account, the server responds with decryption key
  • The decryption key itself is encrypted so cannot be given to another machine
  • Is FairPlay too lenient, too stringent, or just about right?
  • What is your experience with this DRM?
  • What happens if Apple decides to stop supporting FairPlay?