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UNIVERSITE' PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE LABORATOIRE DE ROBOTIQUE DE PARIS. UNIVERSITA' DEGLI STUDI DI GENOVA FACOLTA' DI INGEGNERIA. PHD THESIS EN COTUTELLE XVII CICLE. Development of micro-tools for surgical applications. 18 November 2005. SUPERVISORS: PROF. ING. Rinaldo MICHELINI

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UNIVERSITE' PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE

LABORATOIRE DE ROBOTIQUE DE PARIS

UNIVERSITA' DEGLI STUDI DI GENOVA

FACOLTA' DI INGEGNERIA

PHD THESIS EN COTUTELLE

XVII CICLE

Development of micro-tools for surgical applications

18 November 2005

SUPERVISORS: PROF. ING. Rinaldo MICHELINI

PROF. ING. Philippe BIDAUD

STUDENT: Francesco CEPOLINA


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Index

robotic surgery

MEMS technologies

modules design

system integration


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Robotic surgery

Robotic in-body equipment

Active catheters

Endoscopes

Autonomous worms

Navigating pills

Remote-surgery environments

Orthopaedic surgery

Eye surgery

Laparo/thorax-tomic surgery

Surgical end-effectors


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Active catheters

Tohoku University

www.olympus.com

Esashi catheter

Olympus catheters


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Endoscopes 1 of 4

Hirose + Yoneda

Robotics lab

State of art

Ikuta laboratory

Endoscope tip

Hirose and Ikuta endoscopes


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Endoscopes 2 of 4

ARTS lab

Pisa arthroscope

Paris 6

LRP intestinal endoscope


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Endoscopes 3 of 4

Dr. Gründler

Swiss endoscope

Pennsylvania State University

Stanford Research Institute

EPAM endoscopes


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Endoscopes 4 of 4

Imperial College of London

Neuro-endoscopic operating instruments

Grenoble University

Laparotomic endoscope


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Autonomous worms 1 of 3

ARTS lab

Katholieke Uneversiteit Leuven

Leuven intestinal worm

Pisa intestinal worm


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Autonomous worms 2 of 3

Katholieke Uneversiteit Leuven

Leuven intestinal worm arms

Korea worm

Korea Institute of Science and Technology


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Autonomous worms 3 of 3

Korea Institute of Science and Technology

Korea impulsive worm

Korea centipede worm


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Navigating pills

www.rfnorika.com

The Norika 3 pill


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Robotic surgery

Robotic in-body equipment

Active catheters

Endoscopes

Autonomous worms

Navigating pills

Remote-surgery environments

Orthopaedic surgery

Eye surgery

Laparo/thorax-tomic surgery

Surgical end-effectors



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Orthopaedic surgery

Israel Institute of Technology

NASA Jet Propulsion Lab

Eye surgery


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Laparo/thorax-tomic surgery

http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/

The da Vinci® surgery system


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Surgical end-effectors 1 of 4

The ZEUS® surgery tools

http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/

da Vinci® surgery tools


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Surgical end-effectors 2 of 4

da Vinci® snake wrist

http://www.intuitivesurgical.com

Technical University of Lódz

Poland surgery gripper


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Surgical end-effectors 3 of 4

Michigan State University College of Engineering

Michigan surgery gripper

German Aerospace Center, DLR

German surgery gripper


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Surgical end-effectors 4 of 4

Warsaw University of Technology

Poland sewing effector

Daimler Benz

German forceps


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2DoF

4DoF

4DoF

5DoF

5DoF

5DoF

Minimally invasive surgery: clamps

F. Cepolina, R.C. Michelini, “"Robots in medicine: A survey of in-body nursing aids. Introductory overview and concept design hints."


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Index

robotic surgery

MEMS technologies

modules design

system integration


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MEMS technologies 1/4

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT

Multilayer piezoelectric actuators

Ultrasonic motor

Inchworm piezoeletric motor

ELECTROSTATIC FORCE

Comb drive

Rotating comb drive

Wooble motor


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MEMS technologies 2/4

MAGNETO AND ELECTRO-STRICTIVE FORCE

Electrostrictive actuators

Elastomeric dielectric actuators

Magnetostrictive actuators

MAGNETO- AND ELECTRO- RHEOLOGICAL EFFECT

SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

Actuators SMA

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 1/2

Coreless DC motors


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MEMS technologies 3/4

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 2/2

Brushless DC motor

Micro linear motor

Stepper motor

Micro stepper motor

Solenoids

Voice coil motor


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MEMS technologies 4/4

FLUID ACTUATION

Bourdon pipe

Artificial muscles

THERMAL EXPANSION


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Index

state of art

MEMS technologies

modules design

system integration


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Modules design

embodiment design

commercial components

detail design

control

Target 1

Improvement of arm dexterity



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Technical problems

Limited module size:  10 mm max (fixed by the trocar)

L 30 mm max (fixed by thorax)

Size

Limited actuators power  block not active joints, use light material

limited n° of modules, limited payload

Machining

Limited space available  use miniature screws, gluing, welding

How to link modules together: mechanic, power, signal

Operating theatre

High precision and accuracy is required arm stiffness, error compensation

Safety  force feedback, fast module retrieval, module reliability, modules compliance

Control

Redundant robot control  distributed logic, singularities avoidance, coordination with 2nd hand, sensor fusion, communication protocol

Actuation ? Material ? Transmission ? Sensors ?


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Surgical articulated arm

Vladimir Filaretov Instrument design

In collaboration with:

Prof. Vladimir Filaretov of

Far Eastern State Technical University (Vladivostok)


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Arm with clutches

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Clutches are delicate

• Precision machining is needed


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Self powered forearm

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Motors limit the arms power

• Low dexterity


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Universal joint forearm

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Precision machining is needed


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Flexible joints forearm

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Disposition of the wires along the arm



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Modules design

embodiment design

commercial components

detail design

control


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Torque needed for sewing

Sewing torque

1,2 mNm

Actuation

Material

Transmission

Sensors


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Piercing 0.5 N

Wire stretch 1 N

Clamp 40 N

Motor selection 1/2

Commercial miniature electric motors

COMMENTS

Penn States sells miniature (1.8 mm diam, 4 mm long) piezoelectric motors too expensive (3300 Euro/each)

Actuation

Material

Transmission

Sensors


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Motor selection 2/2

Actuation

Material

Transmission

Sensors

COMMENT

Penn States piezo electric motors (1.8 mm diam, 4 mm long) are too expensive (3300 Euro/each)


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8 mm

F

F

Material selection

Actuation

Material

Transmission

Sensors

150 mm


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Components selection

3300 €

550 €

5 €

8 €

4 €

18 €

Actuation Material Transmission Sensors


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Modules design

embodiment design

commercial components

detail design

control


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Index

Detail design

1 DOF modules

2 DOF modules

End effectors

Final solution


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1DOF modules 1/5

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• The face gear is not feasible

• Link between the orange gear and the pink part

• Low torque

OVERALL L 17.5mm (motor l 1.5mm)

GEAR RATIO 0.625


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1DOF modules 2/5

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Multipole magnet offers low resolution

• Multipole magnet is costly

• The magnet is difficult to assemble

• Low torque


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1DOF modules 3/5

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Consider undercutting for gear design

• The gear, if magnetic, is difficult to machine

• Low torque

Detail design

Given for machining


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1DOF modules 4/5

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Optic wires along the arm

• This face gear is not machinable

• Low torque



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1DOF modules family:

PROBLEM

• Low torque

• Too long

• Big gear

PROBLEM

• Low torque

• Face gear not machin.

PROBLEM

• Low torque

• Face gear not machin.

• Sensor gives low resolution

PROBLEM

• Low torque

• The magnetic gear is not machin.

PROBLEM

• Low torque

• The gear is not machin.

• Cabling problems


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1DOF modules: rotational 1/3

PROBLEM

• Difficult assembly

• Crown gear is not machinable

• Face gear is not machinable

• Low torque


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1DOF modules: rotational 2/3

PROBLEM

• The magnetic gear is difficult to make

• The sensor is costly

• Low torque



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1DOF modules family:

PROBLEM

• Difficult assembly

• Crown gear is not machinable (too small)

PROBLEM

• The magnetic gear is difficult to make

• Complex assembly

• The sensor is costly

• Low torque

PROBLEM

• The magnetic gear is difficult to make

• The sensor is costly

• Low torque


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Index

Detail design

1 DOF modules

2 DOF modules

End effector

Final solution


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2DOF modules 1/4

module: length 25.6mm

dexterity 124° 360°

gear teeth: module 0.25mm

gear ratio 8/24 (/24)

PROBLEM

• The face gears not available

• Conic gears not usable

• Where to put sensors ?





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2DOF modules:

PROBLEM

• The face gears are difficult to find and to make.

• Conic gears give a solution mechanically not working

PROBLEM

• Too long


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Index

Detail design

1 DOF modules

2 DOF modules

End effector

Final solution


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Clamp 1/2

PROBLEM

• Too Long


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Clamp 2/2

SMA

actuated clamp


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Clamps family:

PROBLEM

• too much SMA elongation is needed

PROBLEM

• not much place for the wires

PROBLEM

• assembly

PROBLEM

• too long

PROBLEM

• assembly

PROBLEM

• we need a long module

PROBLEM

• force and elongation not along the axis


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End effectors family

PROBLEM

• Fix the instrument respect to the organ

• Assembly is complex

• Rotation of the syringe needle

PROBLEM

• Integrate into the system position and force sensors

• Control the blade advance

• See exactly were the instrument is cutting

PROBLEM

• High clamping force is required

• Friction between clamps and needle is low

• Final module needs to be short

PROBLEM

• Throw out the sewing wire from the spiral

• To tension the sewing wire

• To knot the sewing wire


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Sewing instrument

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

• Wire tensioning during sewing

• Creation of knot


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Index

Detail design

1 DOF modules

2 DOF modules

End effector

Final solution






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Piercing 0.5 N

Wire stretch 1 N

Clamp 40 N

Final solution 4/4

A

B


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Index

state of art

MEMS technologies

modules design

system integration


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System integration

architecture selection

workspace

simulation

evaluation

Target 2

Selection of a robotic platform able to carry the arm


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Reduce the size of the surgery platform

Arm carrier 1: industrial robot

PROBLEM

• production cost and weight

• the device is cumbersome

Patient


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Minimise motors outside the patient

Arm carrier 2: miniature robot

Zemiti Nabil

PhD project

Patient

PROBLEM

• the device can exert limited force

• the instrument is delicate


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Arm carrier 3: snail

Preferred solution

The tendence is to ‘push’ as many DoFs as possible inside the robot

Patient

PROBLEM

• the device can exert limited force

• the instrument is delicate


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Snail architecture

Device syntesis

Module length

Insertion problem

Optimal N of DOFs

Multiple solutions



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System integration

architecture selection

kinematics

simulation

evaluation

Target 3

Analysis of the robot workspace and singularities




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Denavit Hartemberg formulation

6 DOF arm

Redundant arm



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Instrument singularities: screw theory

The mini-arm is a decoupled manipulator.

The configuration is singular if one of the following conditions is satisfied:


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Instrument singularities: velocity transform matrix

Velocity transform matrix Tc

Determinant of Tc

Solutions




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Instrument singularities: database query

1) Database creation by numerical analysis

2) Singularities workspace database query


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System integration

architecture selection

workspace

simulation

evaluation

Target 4

Control of the redundant surgical robot



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Control of the snail surgery platform

TROCAR

Inverse dynamics

Real-time control

Obstacle avoidance

The control of the surgery robot is

implemented (450 lines of code)

using the ODE library




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Arms cooperation

From 3 to 4 endoscopic arms are necessary to complete a minimally invasive surgery operation


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System integration

architecture selection

workspace

simulation

evaluation

Target 5

Evaluation of the prototype performance




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Prototypes: single module

Damien SallèGenetic arm optimisation Prototype design, assembly



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Speed 72 °/s

Couple 5.8 mNm

Spam ± 104°

Torque measurement

79 g


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2 DOF module

Damien SallèGenetic arm optimisation Prototype design, assembly



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Gripper I performance

Clamping force

40 N

Damien SallèGenetic arm optimisation Prototype design, assembly


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Gripper II overall view

Filippo MorraGripper design


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Gripper II actuation

Jaw and spring

Filippo MorraGripper design


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Vision

Sergio DapratiGripper design


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Piercing 0.5 N

Wire stretch 1 N

Clamp 40 N

Arm prototype

Length 120 mm

N° of DoF5 (inside)

Weight 20 g

Damien SallèGenetic arm optimisation Prototype design, assembly



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Surgery arm prototype performance

LRP Lab, Univ. of Paris 6

PMAR Lab, Univ. of Genoa


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System integration

Silvia Frumento back-arm design


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Conclusion

  • A concept for an agile modular surgical robot is presented and studied

  • Several possible modules have been designed, some prototyped and tested with satisfactory results

  • A strategy for effective operation of the robot is outlined and tested in simulation


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