caution beware of the impact of intravenous vitamin c on renal function l.
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CAUTION: Beware of the Impact of Intravenous Vitamin C on Renal Function. Intravenous Vitamin C- Safety. Relative safety well documented in the medical literature Predominantly minor side effects (thirst, nausea). 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,18,20,21 CAM study 2008

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intravenous vitamin c safety
Intravenous Vitamin C- Safety
  • Relative safety well documented in the medical literature
  • Predominantly minor side effects (thirst, nausea).6,7,8,9,10,11,12,18,20,21
  • CAM study 2008
  • However, 2 reported deaths in patients with acute renal failure 19,26
  • The proposed mechanism of death: acute oxalate nephropathy.
  • Contraindications: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency13, hemochromatosis 14
  • Precautions: Hx of renal oxalate stones, renal impairment or renal failure 15,16,17,18,19,20,21
our experience
Our Experience
  • Safe administration of i.v. vitamin C for > 30 years.
  • Treatment 1-2 infusions/week
  • No serious adverse events
    • Definition: Serious adverse event - events where the patient either died, required hospitalisation or prolonged existing hospitalisation, required intervention to prevent permanent disability/incapacity, resulted in a congenital abnormality, or where the event was life-threatening. www.medsafe.govt.nz
rnzcgp cqi activity
RNZCGP CQI Activity
  • Looked at renal function in ~ 200 consecutive patients
  • Renal function measured at start, 4 weeks, then 12 weekly
  • 9/200 patients -> 15-20% decline in s.creatinine
  • GP review
  • Identification of causative/ confounding factors
potential causative and confounding factors
Potential Causative and Confounding Factors
  • Dehydration
  • Autoimmune disorder
  • Uncontrolled BP
  • Uncontrolled DM
  • Urinary tract outflow obstruction e.g. BPH, intra-abdominal tumour, Ca prostate, mets
  • Renal stone, reflux nephropathy or other renal abn
  • Medications e.g. NSAIDs, diuretics, anti-viral agents, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins et cetera
  • Infection/ sepsis
  • Dietary confounders: eggs, bacon, steak, oral vitamin C
  • Proximity of the blood test to the ascorbic acid infusion.
vitamin c and serum creatinine
Vitamin C and serum Creatinine
  • Cephalosporin antibiotics, NSAIDs, aminoglycosides, anti-viral agents, diuretics, lithium all may cause elevations in serum creatinine
  • Vitamin C causes a false rise in s. creatinine by~ 26% by reduction of the chemical analyte picrate to picramate.27,28,29,30
  • Laboratory measurement of s. creatinine may vary by 20-30%
  • Other interesting things:-
  • Protein, eggs, bacon and steak, glucose may also interfere in the assay causing falsely high values.29, 30
vitamin c and renal stones
Vitamin C and Renal Stones
  • Controversial
  • Oxalate stone formers more at risk?
  • Vitamin C appears to cause a modest increase in urinary oxalate excretion.........
vitamin c and renal stones11
Vitamin C and Renal Stones
  • Urinary oxalate excretion affected by diet e.g. leafy greens, spinach, nuts, chocolate, cranberry, high animal protein, low calcium, low fluid intake
  • And by age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, gut health and transport, enzyme deficiencies et cetera
  • Ascorbic acid converts to oxalate during storage, handling, processing, and analysis 11,12, 15-20, 22-25
  • When the urine sample is stored, handled and processed correctly <0.5% of the administered dose of vitamin C is recovered as oxalic acid 12
  • Oxalate stones take months/ years to develop......
  • Does vitamin C cause oxalate stones?
be aware
Be Aware
  • Laboratory measurement of s. creatinine may vary by 20-30%
  • Multiple factors including drugs, medical conditions, level of hydration, high dietary protein and supplement intake affect s. creatinine
  • Advise patients to wait 48 hours after consuming steak, eggs, bacon, oral or intravenous vitamin C; and to be well hydrated, prior to renal function testing
  • Consider repeating the test before jumping to conclusions
  • Monitor, evaluate, reflect, and repeat measures
be aware18
Be Aware
  • Laboratory measurement of s. creatinine may vary by 20-30%
  • Multiple factors including drugs, medical conditions, level of hydration, high dietary protein and supplement intake affect s. creatinine
  • Advise patients to wait 48 hours after consuming steak, eggs, bacon, oral or intravenous vitamin C; and to be well hydrated, prior to renal function testing
  • Consider repeating the test before jumping to conclusions
  • Monitor, evaluate, reflect, and repeat measures
references
References

1.Verrax J, Calderon PB. The controversial place of vitamin C in cancer treatment. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Dec 15;76(12):1644-52. Epub 2008 Sep 30.

2.Padayatty SJ, Sun AY, Chen Q, et al. Vitamin C: intravenous use by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and adverse events. PLoS One. 2010;5(7):e11414.

3.Tanaka H, Matsuda T, Miyagantani Y et al. Reduction of resuscitation fluid volumes in severely burned patients using ascorbic acid administration:a randomized, prospective study. Arch Surg. 2000; 135(3):326-331.

4.Attallah N, Osman-Malik Y, Frinak S, et al. Effect of intravenous vitamin C in hemodialysis patients with EPO-hyporesponsive anemia and hyperferritinemia. Am J Kidney dis. 2006; 47(4):644-654.

5.Yeom CH, Jung JC, Song KJ. Changes of terminal cancer patients' health-related quality of life after high dose vitamin C. J Korean Med Sci. 2007; 22(1):7-11.

6.Padayatty SJ, Riordan HD, Hewitt SM, et al. Intravenously administered vitamin C as cancer therapy: three cases. CMAJ. 2006;174(7):937-942.

7.Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, et al. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(7):533-537.

8.Hoffer LJ, Levine M, Assouline S, et al. Phase I clinical trial of i.v. ascorbic acid in advanced malignancy. Ann Oncol. 2008;19(11):1969-1974.

9.Riordan NH, Riordan HD, Casciari JJ. Clinical and experimental experiences with intravenous vitamin C. J Orthomol Med. 2000;15:201-213.

10.Deved V, Poyah P, James MT, Tonelli M, Manns BJ, Walsh M, Hemmelgarn BR; Alberta Kidney Disease Network. Ascorbic acid for anemia management in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Dec;54(6):1089-97. Epub 2009 Sep 23.

references continued
References continued

11.Gerster H. No contribution of ascorbic acid to renal calcium oxalate stones. Ann Nutr Metab. 1997; 41(5):269-282.

12.Robitaille L, Mamer OA, Miller WH, et al. Oxalic acid excretion after ascorbic acid administration. Metabolism. 2009; 58(2):263-269.

13.Rees DC, Kelsey H, Richards JDM. Acute haemolysis induced by high dose ascorbic acid in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. BMJ. 1993;306(6881):841-842.

14.Mallory MA, Sthapanachai C, Kowdley KV. Iron overload related to excess vitamin C intake. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139(6):532-533.

15.Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin, and kidney stones in US adults. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(6):619-624.

16.Canavese C, Petrarulo M, Massarenti P, Berutti S, Fenoglio R, Pauletto D, Lanfranco G, Bergamo D, Sandri L, Marangella M. Long-term, low-dose, intravenous vitamin C leads to plasma calcium oxalate supersaturation in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Mar;45(3):540-9.

17.Peña de la Vega L, Lieske JC, Milliner D, Gonyea J, Kelly DG. Urinary oxalate excretion increases in home parenteral nutrition patients on a higher intravenous ascorbic acid dose. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):435-8.

18.Wong K, Thomson C, Bailey RR, McDiarmid S and Gardner J: Acute oxalate nephropathy after a massive intravenous dose of vitamin C. Aust N Z J Med 24: 410-411, 1994.

19.Lawton JM, Conway LT, Crosson JT, Smith CL, Abraham PA. Acute oxalate nephropathy after massive ascorbic acid administration. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145:950–951.

20.Auer BL, Auer D, Rodgers AL. - Eur J Clin Invest 1998 Sep;28(9):695-700 -- Relative hyperoxaluria, crystalluria and haematuria after megadose ingestion of vitamin C.

references continued21
References continued

21.McAllister CJ, Scowden EB, Dewberry FL, Richman A. Renal failure secondary to massive infusion of vitamin C. JAMA. 1984;252:1684.

22.Tsao CS, Salimi SL. Effect of large intake of ascorbic acid on urinary and plasma oxalic acid levels. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1984; 54(2-3):245-9.

23.Erden F, Hacisalihoglu A, Kocer Z, Simsek B, Nebioglu S. Effects of vitamin C intake on whole blood plasma, leukocyte and urine ascorbic acid and urine oxalic acid levels. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1985;7:123-130.

24.Wandzilak TR, D’Andre SD, Davis PA, Williams HE. Effect of high dose vitamin C on urinary oxalate levels. J Urol. 1994;151: 834-837.

25.Schmidt K, Hagmaier V, Hornig DH, Vuilleumier JP, Rutishauser G. Urinary oxalate excretion after large intakes of ascorbic acid in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34:305-311.

26.McHugh GJ, Graber ML, Freebarin RC. Fatal vitamin C-associated renal failure. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008; 36(4):585-588.

27.Qing H Meng; William C Irwin; Jennifer Fesser; K Lorne Massey Interference of ascorbic acid with chemical analytes Annals of Clinical Biochemistry; Nov 2005; 42, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete pg. 475

28.Peake M, Whiting M. Measurement of Serum Creatinine – Current Status and Future Goals Clin Biochem Rev Vol 27 November 2006

29.WHO: Blood Safety and Clinical Technology - Guidelines on Standard Operating Procedures for CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Creatinine  http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section17/Section53/Section481_1755.htm

30.Mayo clinic http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8472