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  2. THE APEX OF CREATION Blade Runner initiates with words, a view of the city, and an eye in a state of perceiving. We are told of the present condition of our society[s]. There now exists two distinct [being]s. Humanity and a genetically engineered species birthed-forth from our human mind, ‘a being virtually identical to a human - known as a Replicant.’ The film Blade Runner is an ancient myth brought forth into modernity by Ridley Scott’s vision; it is the myth of Zeus and his child Athena conceived of and birthed from his own mind. Unlike Zeus, a god, we are human. Humanity tolerates and takes pride in our achievements only as far as we are not replaced by them. These Replicants are perfect. Refined perfection guided by humanity’s perceived emotional, intellectual, and physical inadequacies. Similar to modernist principles a Replicants’ physical and mental capacities are governed by their projected function.  

  3. A basic pleasure model….. The standard item for military clubs in the off colony…. -Police Chief All Replicants are slaves to humanity and their individual functions are specific to them: combat, labour, or pleasure. Humanity has the luxury of time to develop their position about where they stand in the world - our life is about process; Perceiving and processing with our mind the accumulation of knowledge and experiences. Replicants are innately embedded with their function and their pasts . Their memories are given to them by their creator. Whereas Zeus nurtures his warrior daughter Athena, human society severs the cord and abandons our creations/children to the off-worlds to serve our own good. Police Chief: They were designed to copy human beings in every way except their emotions, and the designers reckon that after a few years they might develop their own emotional responses- hate, love, fear, anger, envy- so they built in a fail safe device… Deckard: Which is what? Police Chief: A four year life-span. REPLICANT DESIGNATION: BATTY (ROY) NEXUS 6 N6MAA10816 INCEPT DATE: 8 JAN., 2016 FUNC: COMBAT, COLONIZATION DEFENSE PROGRAM PHYS: LEV A MENT: LEVEL A

  4. Ridley Scott explores several universal philosophical questions regarding humanity. He concentrates on the specific act of perceiving and the relationship of perceiving and memory. Memory is defined in the film as a quality that is distinctly human, truly human. The film plays with the us, plays with the notions of perception and what is truthful perception or merely aesthetic. The Replicants are also in possession of imbedded memories or what is perceived to be memories by them. Life experiences are absorbed and a memory is generated whereby the Replicants begin to display emotions based on life experiences- similar to humans. What is left to distinguish us from them? Nothing. Humanity tempers the Replicants perfection by condemning them to a four year life-span. The Replicants remain a transient being/memory in the human world. Ridley Scott poses/reveals/explores what it means to be human and how do we stand as humans in the face of rapidly developing technologies? Commerce is our goal here at Tyrell. More human than human is our motto. -Tyrell

  5. EAST MEETS WEST: GLOBALIZATION AND THE COLLECTIVE MEMORY Ridley Scott seamlessly collects and layers diverse and divergent forms of communication: Art, architecture, music, photography, poetry. He generates through film a visual ‘pastiche’ of our western collective memory. Like all societies our historical, cultural, and economic development is documented in these various forms of communication. Our experience of architecture has become habit, a subconscious part of everyday life. Film has likewise become part of our subconscious memory, shading our impression of places we have never experienced and in many cases never will; influencing to the point of dictating how we should feel, think and operate in a particular space. When films are set in New York the background is so dominant, and so instantly recognizable, that it cannot help but become almost an honorary member acting to validate the plot. If this is true then how do audience members make the cognitive leap between what they see and what they understand? -Natasha Higham

  6. Cinematically Ridley Scott assembles these seemingly disparate forms of communication [that act as signifiers] and he asks the viewer to engage in thoughtful/truthful perception - active perception. He links the items together as collective signifiers. Their meanings unfold and surface relative to our knowledge and perception. Our individual knowledge regarding our collective society’s’ history acts as a variable to which we as a viewer enter into the life of the movie.

  7. THE OBVIOUS ABOUT FILM GENRE AND ITS CONSCIOUS SUBVERSION BY SIGNIFIERS- CINEMATOGRAPHY Film provides architecture with an outlet for realizing visions that can never exist and conjures up experience that in reality have not. As a two dimensional form, the freedom of expression is limitless because the economics, logistical, and legal constraints are no longer a burden. The creative process and hence cinema becomes an ideal medium created for utopian visions and different approaches to architectural design. -Natasha Higham The narrative’s physical landscape is set within the science fiction genre while the characters come alive within the genre of film noir. Ridley Scott vacillates between the two genres by his use of cinematography and the collection of signifiers. By juxtaposing the genres and signifiers he generates a tapestry of modern and post modern iconography. Our emotional attachments to/with the film and characters are heightened by these signifiers. Cinematically each scene is presented as a series of focusing, similar to the operation of a human eye. Ridley Scott also plays between the collective [i.e. the city- represented in the sci-fi landscapes] to the relationship of the protagonist [the individual within this collective] and his mission [that is set in the film noir genre.]

  8. AN EXAMPLE: INDIVIDUAL TO COLLECTIVE Deckard is on his way to the Tyrell Co-corporation in the Spinner police car. We fly across this horizontal landscape of Los Angeles 2019 towards the monolithic deconstructed Mayan temple that houses the Tyrell Corporation. The only aspect of Los Angeles that we understand from the present day city is the horizontality and the abstracted idea of the ‘free way’ by the signified flying vehicles. Ridley Scott then focuses in and juxtaposes Deckard’s facial expressions- his perceiving of this science-fiction landscape; we are not sure if he is in wonder or utter detachment, if he is hesitant about the landscape or about his mission. We do recognize that he is a man and we empathize with him as a viewer as we are aware that he is reluctant to be on this mission.

  9. COLLECTIVE TO INDIVIDUAL The viewer is focused closer. We are now within the heavy walls of the Tyrell Corporation. Repetitious stamped concrete patterns [which symbolize infinity] are imbedded into the walls.[The stamps are from a house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for Ennis-Brown in southern California. The house adapted concrete to the surrounding rugged topography. He designed the house for a client who shared his affinity for Mayan art and architecture drawing upon the inspiration of the culture's highly ornamented and organized buildings.] The iconography is there, but this certainly is not Los Angeles. Rachael [a Replicant] [a product of this highly organized and specialized company] emerges from the cavernous womb of the room between several classically positioned signifiers. The signifiers all indicate power. Several of the signifiers relate to past conquests of nations against one another. Nations that had dabbled in genetic engineering experiments. The Tyrell Corporation is the apex of organic reproduction. Man as God. The power of man to control nature and so signifiers such as the bonsai located on the board room table and the owl are not coincidental.

  10. Ridley Scott engages the viewer with the exquisite Replicant Rachael who wears 40’s clothing of the film noir era. She is a woman of the time. Visually he makes us believe that she is the classic femme fatale. She captivates and seduces the viewer along with Deckard. Unlike the typical film noir, she becomes the metaphor for his spiritual awakening. Deckard rediscovers his humanity through ‘the other’ through a machine: Eventually he realizes that regardless of their beginnings they both desire and possess the same needs in life. Tyrell emerges with thick spectacles, he is the father of creation. Ridley Scott moves in further. We are a direct witness into the eyes of the Replicant. We watch as Rachael is examined by the Voight Kampff test and indirectly we too are subject to the same emotional test as the Replicant. By the end of the scene we are sitting at the table with the characters. We empathize with Rachael who is unaware of her un-humanness and we empathize with Deckard who not only was reluctant to retire the Replicants but has now become visibly taken, emotionally taken, with Rachael. Deckard undergoes a spiritual crisis. He understands that she is unaware of not ‘being’ truly human, biologically human. He struggles to remain detached from this finding. Disturbingly, she reacts very humanly; she is visibly upset, confused, and ashamed particularly when she is asked to leave the table. Who is more human at this point? Deckard, Rachael, Tyrell?

  11. COLLECTIVE TO INDIVIDUAL The scene ends and we again travel across the city - over the horizontal landscape – [Ridley Scott recycles three diverse shots of the city throughout the film]- The Coca-cola electronic board dominates an entire façade of a building. Architecture is replaced with commerce. The signage is similar to Times Square in New York except here there is no evidence of small businesses. The individual is no longer visible. Only large global corporations flourish [coca-cola, pharmaceuticals]. The city is familiar, we know coca-cola, but the scales and method of marketing are out of proportion to the signage we have today. The world of Blade Runner is accelerated; signage finds the viewer and the city dwellers even when they are still. Ridley Scott maintains the series of signifiers at all cinematic scales and within each genre. What initially seems as a blurring is actually a method to clarify the narrative to the viewer.

  12. Another example of signifiers that remain at a very small scale is illustrated within the collection of Lyon’s photographs that Deckard finds in the Yukon Hotel. One particular photographs pulls together several other signifiers to visually convey the Replicants emotional desire for domesticity.

  13. Lyon’s photographs eventually get mixed in with Deckard’s own unclear history. On a piano within his apartment Deckard pins up Lyon’s photos. Lyon’s photos lie across Deckard’s photographs of his own ancestry. Up until this point his apartment had no indication of domestic living. The piano humanizes Deckard. We are visually signified that he once had emotions. The film replaces the standard hearth with a piano. The piano metaphorically signifies the marriage of the individual and the collective within a finite space: A collective memory of family and gathering, A place of joy , A place of intimacy. It is in this metaphoric space where Deckard intuitively observes the same level of domesticity within one of Lyon’s photographs. He places the photo into the Esper [scientific eye] viewing machine [which makes a very particular sound similar to a camera shutter –not the futuristic sound one might anticipate with new technology.] The Esper has the ability to interpret vocal commands and to respond using emissions of high frequency sounds. The Esper provides tri-dimensional analysis of high resolution photographs. It has the capacity to detect hidden physical planes that are not visible on the photographic surface. The overall photo is a mish-mash of paintings by Vermeer and Jacques Louis David. Vermeer is a Dutch painter re-known for his interior ‘landscapes’ of the daily lives of Dutch people. Everyday scenes where the smallest tasks of everyday life are glorified and revered; painted with softness and intimacy. They depict the absolute universal joy of life in the most mundane of moments. Vermeer also used a pin-hole camera to frame compositions to paint. Images recorded with the camera often showed discrepancies in scale similar to the ones found in his paintings. His fluid, painterly treatment can be compared to the unfocused appearance of an image seen through such an optical device. His method was unconventional, painters of the time relied on live models. What the viewer perceives to be direct representations are in fact indirect - Vermeer is a perceptual forge. The paintings are subtle and full of signifiers that people would readily relate to during the 17th and 18th centuries. Ironically it is the Replicants who are found in these photos, they have posited themselves in historical depictions of humanity. To be caught on film in such intimate settings is indicative of the sophistication of their own emotions. The photo documents offer proof that the Replicants have tasted domesticity; the mundane repetition of daily life.

  14. As with any race that has lived under tyranny and slavery, eventually they rebel – this is the human spirit. Like any lost or abandoned child, they return to search for their roots, their beginnings, the meaning of their life.

  15. FILM NOIR, LOVE AND LOVE Ridley Scott skews an already known film typology in order to frame the known against the unknown. Philosophical problems are amplified when human emotions are involved. Emotions and passion are always generated with romance. He is aware that the viewer is familiar with this genre and so we are unconsciously guided to question what is love. The narrative and host of characters within the film are typical of film noir with the: ‘hard-boiled’ gritty private eye, the wealthy ruler, the deviants of society, and the femme fatale. Right and wrong, bad guy and good guy are typically clear in film noir: The criminal deserves it for doing wrong and the protagonist has no problem in intervening as it serves the common good. Good and bad in Blade Runner is totally blurred. The introduction of ethics set against the continuous eternal question of ‘What it means to be human’ complicates Deckard’s mission. As the Replicants continuously demonstrate their capacity for human emotion [primarily because of Rachael] his ability to ‘retire’ the ‘skin jobs’ is compromised. Romance emotionally calls upon the viewer to perceive and believe that the Replicants are human despite the foreign world they inhabit. Ridley Scott is clever in seducing and appealing to the emotions of the viewer in this subversive way.

  16. Ridley signifies the Marlow’s, the Bogart’s, even the expressionism of Dr. Caligari as a means of mediation between the viewer and the protagonist’s inner world.

  17. Deckard is quite cold and emotionless. He remains distant from life. His detachment is emphasized with his close affiliation with booze. His apartment is an inanimate extension of his spiritual psyche, specifically his dislike of society. In opposition to him stands Roy Batty, a Replicant, who is the emotional tenor throughout the film. Roy actively and persistently ‘wills’ for life, a longer life. As a result of Roy’s commitment to ‘willing,’ his actions may not have always been good. He understands that his actions did not conform to [human] civil societies laws and customs. Roy reveals a conscience by his spoken confession. A conscience understands what society considers to be right and wrong. He states that during his life ‘he has done questionable things’ but he also understands that he has been treated inhumanely despite being created as ‘more human than human.’ Philosophically, he is the authentic ‘being’ and Nietzsche’s mad man: His sense of self preservation, His love for Pris, His seeking out of Tyrell [his father] are all demonstrative of his humanity.

  18. At the end of his life Roy displays the most enlightened and transcendent of all human emotions, compassion . He raises Deckard using the hand he had speared to prolong its use. Through this act of forgiveness Roy is transformed into a Christ-like figure. Roy professes his sadness regarding the temporality of his perceptions, experiences, memory, and life. His absolute love for life allows him to experience death so profoundly. His final words to Deckard are given in the highest form of human prose - poetry.

  19. LOS ANGELES NOVEMBER 2019 The city of Los Angeles 2019 now supports a population of 90 million. The urban landscape is totally synthetic and has suffered urban decay through the economic pitfalls of globalization. The rich have moved completely out of the city or to off-worlds. Ridley Scott takes a familiar place, the city of Los Angeles, and hypothetically subjects it to the economic, social, and cultural implications of globalization. What ever we know of present day Los Angeles is buried under a global lens. The city of 2019 is a city of contradiction. Visual layering of architectural typologies and artifacts from various cultural histories create the contradictory future-memory of a globalized world. During the 1980’s the United States suffered considerable economic paranoia with the rise of the Japanese economy. The bill boards signify this paranoia and is doubly amplified with the futuristic Japanese models consuming pharmaceuticals with a smile. The Los Angeles 2019 he depicts has no evidence of decaying bungalows, sandy beaches, or the green hills that we know it for today. The middle-class suburbs have been overtaken by the city. The ethnicity of the inhabitants generate a sub-commentary regarding the ‘American dream.’

  20. The overall city presented has modern elements of Le Corbusier’s radiant city. He then interjects the formality with the complexity of post modernist ideals, specifically, the ideas of Venturi. A particular idea is the understanding of the complexity of a city. That individual structures can remain autonomous within the complexity of an organic urban city scape. Ridley Scott interjects The Bradbury hotel, Union Station, and the Yukon hotel which are New York city icons into his vision of Los Angeles. The city blocks of living towers seem to be part of a functional and rigorous city plan, but as one descends into the streets we find that they are not the efficient channels for automobile traffic that Le Corbusier envisioned but a densely populated pedestrian core that seethes with post-capitalist vendors, restaurants, and ethnic markets. This street level is very similar to New York, not Los Angeles. This future city has adopted to the transactions of a populus whose cultures extend beyond the bounds of architecture. The futurist city can not accommodate the rigidity of modernism, instead it folds and unfolds with the meeting of east and west. I took the two world trade towers in New York City and the New York street proportions as a ‘today’ model, and expanded everything vertically about two and a half times. This inspired me to make the bases of the buildings sloping to cover about six city blocks, on the premise that you needed more ground access to the building mass. -Syd Mead

  21. PHYSICAL AND META-PHYSICAL RECYCLING Literature and economics inform the cyclical imagery, sound, and text. Blade Runner is loosely affiliated with the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep by Philip K. Dick. His theories regarding temporality and cyclical states are to be found in several other of his other writings. In this novel he speaks about the repetition of escaping the city for new land that this generates an endless cycle within the human psyche and city. Economics is stated in the directors own words: We’re in a city which is in a state of overkill, of snarled up energy, where you can no longer remove a building because it costs far more than constructing one in place. So the whole economic process is slowed down. -Ridley Scott The imagery, sound, and text recycle throughout the film. There are several ideas and associative theories that are derived from the film: The idea of recurrence, Serendipity, Quantum physics, The cycling of time, Recycling.

  22. The production of the movie adopted recycling to reduce cost. The director was forced to use the Bradbury buildings. The cost was lower to use an existing building that was to undergo renovation that constructing a set within a city. Ridley Scott recycled several elements from his and other films also. Recycling is a factor of economics. The film itself is recycled cinema. The futuristic buildings within the film [which are actually existing] are covered in external piping and systems as a means of re-use for the large futuristic city. The ironic return to the founding’s of architecture, Mayan civilizations, in a futuristic society Post-Ford industries and economics are foreseen and represented as production business. The farming out of Replicant industries to ethnic vendors as a means of reducing cost. Similar to after-market industries today, they recycle parts from the Tyrell corporation or generate parts for existing products. Living amongst and creating out of the refuse we find characters who not only depend on the waste, they are as much a product of it such as J.F. Sebastian. His accelerated death is a result of the post-modern condition. Cinematically Ridley re-hashes the scenes of the electronic blimp and electronic building façade as a means of retaining the viewer in a visual/temporal cyclical limbo, for it would seem impossible that after being presented with the enormous landscape in the first scene we would find ourselves repositioned in front of the same icons?

  23. The themes of recycling also find themselves in the smaller scale; ideas of serendipity or déjà vu that the viewer perceives yet does not fully comprehend: Deckard’s newspaper he reads prior to confronting Zhora is Lyon’s drawer liner at the Yukon hotel; A 17th century camera oscura that captures the Replicants who are then divulged from a tri-dimensional lens. Pictures that are within pictures. The film ends with the recycling and questioning of Deckard’s own authenticity. The police chief’s assistant recycles discarded items to into sculptural origami pieces, iconographic images of each scene. Initially, the chief of police validates Deckard’s position in the global hierarchy by referring to him as a little man. After Deckard completes his mission, we view the chief’s assistant who congratulates Deckard by telling him he has done a man’s job. Is this statement a conscious repetition or a distortion of the statement through a temporal cycle?