Birth Control Methods • Condoms (male and female) • Spermicidal Foam or Jelly • Speculum • Vaginal Contraceptive Film • Birth Control Pills • Orthro-Evra® Patch • Nuva Ring® • Depo-Provera® Information • IUD (Intrauterine Device) • Emergency Contraception –Plan B
Birth Control Pills • Pills can be taken to prevent pregnancy • Pills are safe and effective when taken properly • Pills are over 99% effective • Women must have a pap smear to get a prescription for birth control pills
How does the pill work? • Stops ovulation • Thins uterine lining • Thickens cervical mucus
Prevents pregnancy Eases menstrual cramps Shortens period Regulates period Decreases incidence of ovarian cysts Prevents ovarian and uterine cancer Decreases acne Positive Benefits of Birth Control Pills
Breast tenderness Nausea Increase in headaches Moodiness Weight change Spotting Side-effects
Taking the Pill • Once a day at the same time everyday • Use condoms for first month • Use condoms when on antibiotics • Use condoms for 1 week if you miss a pill or take one late • The pill offers no protection from STD’s
Spermicides: • Contraceptive foam, gels, suppositories, and film contain chemicals that kill sperm. • They are inserted into the vagina before intercourse and should be used with a condom. • 75%-80% effective if used alone • 98% effective if used with condom
Spermicides-Side Effects • Allergic reaction • Burning or irritation
BARRIER METHOD • Prevents pregnancy blocks the egg and sperm from meeting • Barrier methods have higher failure rates than hormonal methods due to design and human error
MALE CONDOM • Perfect effectiveness rate = 97% • Typical effectiveness rate = 88% • Latex and polyurethane condoms are available • Combining condoms with spermicides raises effectiveness levels to 99%
MALE CONDOM Thin membrane made of latex, polyurethane or sheepskin that fits over the erect penis to catch semen when the male ejaculates. Condoms protect against some STI’s and unwanted pregnancy. Have a reservoir tip to collect semen at ejaculation
How to Use a Male Condom • Check package for expiration date • Open package carefully (not with teeth!) • Use a water based lubricate if needed • Put condom on before you begin to have sexual intercourse-before penis touches other person • Place the unrolled condom on the head of the erect penis. • With one hand squeeze the air out of the tip of the condom, and with the other hand unroll the condom to the base of the penis • After ejaculation, before the penis becomes limp, withdrawal the penis holding the rim of the condom to the base of the penis • Dispose of used condom in trash, not toilet!
FEMALE CONDOM • Made as an alternative to male condoms • Polyurethane • Physically inserted in the vagina • Perfect rate = 95% • Typical rate = 79% • Woman can use female condom if partner refuses • Female Condom
Depo-Provera • Birth control shot given once every three months to prevent pregnancy • 99.7% effective preventing pregnancy • No daily pills to remember
How does the shot work? • Stops ovulation • Stops menstrual cycles!! • Thickens cervical mucus
SIDE EFFECTS • Extremely irregular menstrual bleeding and spotting for 3-6 months! • NO PERIOD after 3-6 months • Weight change • Breast tenderness • Mood change *NOT EVERY WOMAN HAS SIDE-EFFECTS!
NuvaRing • Flexible contraceptive vaginal ring that contains the hormones estrogen and progesterone. • The ring releases a continuous low dose of hormones that stops the ovaries from releasing an egg each month.
NuvaRing • Insert the ring in the vagina and leave it there for three weeks • Remove the ring for one-week ring-free period, on the same day of the week at about the same time. During the one-week break, you will usually have your menstrual period.
Side effects • Possible side effects are the same as birth control pills. • They may include breast tenderness, headache, nausea, and spotting. Most side effects are not serious and often go away. • Women who use hormonal contraception should not smoke
Ortho Evra (The Patch) • Transdermal contraceptive patch that contains estrogen and progesterone • The patch is thin, beige, flexible , two inch square that is worn on the body. • The increased hormone level caused by the patch stops the ovaries from releasing an egg each month
How it works • 99% effective • Apply patch one week on the same day each week for three weeks • Can wear it on bottom, abdomen, torso, or on the outside of your upper arm • During week four do not wear the patch(your period will begin)
Side effects • Breast tenderness • Headache • Skin irritation • Nausea • Increases blood clot
Emergency Contraception Emergency contraception pills can reduce the chance of a pregnancy by 89% if taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex!
What is it? • Emergency contraception (EC) is a safe and effective way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. It can be started up to five days (120 hours) after unprotected intercourse.
How does it work? • The hormones in the morning after pill work by keeping a woman's ovaries from releasing eggs — ovulation. Pregnancy cannot happen if there is no egg to join with sperm. The hormones in the morning after pill also prevent pregnancy by thickening a woman's cervical mucus. The mucus blocks sperm and keeps it from joining with an egg.
How do I take it? • Taken within a 72 hour period it is 89% effective • If taken after 72 hours it is 75% effective • Can be taken up to 5 days after intercourse but is more effective if taken • Plan B can be taken in one dose or two doses. If you take it in two doses, take the second pill 12 hours after the first pill. Or simply take them both at the same time. It's your choice. • When you take birth control pills as emergency contraception, you must take the pills in two doses, 12 hours apart. The number of pills in each dose depends on the brand of the pill. You must use the same brand of pill for each dose.
When should I use it? • The condom broke or slipped off, and he ejaculated in your vagina. • You forgot to take your birth control pills, insert your ring, or apply your patch. • Your diaphragm or cap slipped out of place, and he ejaculated inside your vagina. • You miscalculated your "safe" days. • He didn't pull out in time. • You weren't using any birth control. • You were forced to have unprotected vaginal sex, or were raped.
Emergency Contraception (ECP) Plan B is available from drugstores and health centers without a prescription for women and men 17 and older. If you are interested in getting Plan B and are 17 or older, you can either get it directly from a Planned Parenthood health center or from your local drugstore. If you are younger than 17, you'll need to go to a health center or private health care provider for a prescription.
WITHDRAWAL • Removal of penis from the vagina before ejaculation occurs • NOT a sufficient method of birth control by itself • Effectiveness rate is 80% • is not recommended for teens and sexually inexperienced men because it takes lots of experience before a man can be sure to know when he's going to ejaculate • Very difficult for a male to ‘control’
How effective is it? • Of every 100 women whose partners use withdrawal, 4 will become pregnant each year if they always do it correctly. • Of every 100 women whose partners use withdrawal, 27 will become pregnant each year if they don't always do it correctly. • Pregnancy is also possible if semen or pre-ejaculate is spilled on the vulva.
Natural Family Planning & Fertility Awareness Method • Women take a class on the menstrual cycle to calculate morefertile times • Requires special equipment and cannot be self-taught • NFP abstains from sex during the calculated fertile time • FAM uses barrier methods during fertile time • Perfect effectiveness rate = 91% • Typical effectiveness rate = 75% • No 100% safe day-irregular periods
EXCELLENT REFERENCE SEE: www.plannedparenthood.org
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