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Bacteria - Eubacteria. Domain Prokarya. Plantae. Monera. Bacteria-Eubacteria. Lumpers. Splitters. Shifting Kingdoms. Multicellular Animals. Archezoans. Euglenoids. Slime Molds. Archaebacteria. Brown Algae. Protozoans. Chrysophytes. Red algae. Green Algae. Bryophytes. Myxozoans.

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bacteria eubacteria

Bacteria - Eubacteria

Domain Prokarya

shifting kingdoms

Plantae

Monera

Bacteria-Eubacteria

Lumpers

Splitters

Shifting Kingdoms

how many kingdoms

Multicellular Animals

Archezoans

Euglenoids

Slime Molds

Archaebacteria

Brown Algae

Protozoans

Chrysophytes

Red algae

Green Algae

Bryophytes

Myxozoans

True Fungi

Tracheophytes

Bacteria

8

5

3

2

1

Extant

How Many Kingdoms?

Extinct

Long Time with

Prokaryotes only

Original Cell

bacteria eubacteria1
Bacteria - Eubacteria
  • Ancient fossils 3.5 billion years b.p.
  • Archetype for prokaryotic organisms
    • Phototrophs
    • Chemoautotrophs
    • Heterotrophs
    • Saprobes
    • Parasites (bacteria benefit, host harmed)
    • Commensals (bacteria benefit, host unharmed)
    • Mutualists (bacteria and host both benefit)
  • Unicellular, colonial, filamentous
  • Bacillus, coccus, spirillum
bacterial phyla

+Para-

site

+Chl B

H2S

-Cell Wall

+Parasite

H2O

+µtubule

H2S

+Chl A

+gliding motility

H2O

+NAD

+bacteriochlorophyll

+NADP

Gram negative

Bacterial Phyla

Rhodopseudomonads

Extant

Mycoplasmas

Actinomycetes

Purple nonsulfur

Green Sulfur

Clostrids

Spirochetes

Cyanobacteria

Prochlorophytes

Purple Sulfur

Desulfovibrios

Myxobacteria

Rikettsias

Extinct

Gram

positive

Original Cell

domain prokarya

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Chlamydias

Spirochetes

Gram Positive

Cyanobacteria

Kingdom Bacteria

to Domains Archaea and Eukarya

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya1

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Gram-negative

photoauto-, chemoauto-, hetero-trophs

symbionts, parasites

Rhizobium-legumes: N2 fixation

Agrobacterium-host: Recombinant DNA

Rickettsias: Rocky Mountain Fever

likely source of mitochondrion by endosymbiosis

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya2

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Gram-negative

photoauto-, chemoauto-, hetero-trophs

nutritionally diverse

Nitrosomonas in soil:

NH4+ NO2-

ammonium nitrite

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya3

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Gram-negative

photoauto-, chemoauto-, hetero-trophs

Photosynthetic: Chromatium

CO2 + H2S CH2O + S(solid)

Heterotrophic: Legionella-Legionnaires’ disease

Enterics: Escherichia coli in your intestine

Salmonella food poisoning

Vibrio cholerae cholera

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya4

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Gram-negative

photoauto-, chemoauto-, hetero-trophs

Myxobacteria: slime secretion, aggregation, spores

Bdellovibrios: rapid locomotion 100m/sec

penetrate prey bacteria 100 rps

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya5

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Gram-negative

photoauto-, chemoauto-, hetero-trophs

Helicobacter pylori: human stomach ulcers

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya6

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Chlamydias

Gram-negative

parasites inside animal cells

Chlamydia trachomatis: blindness

Non-gonococcal urethritis: common STD

(most-common in USA!)

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya7

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Chlamydias

Spirochetes

Helical heterotrophs to 0.25 mm long

but very thin!

Rotational bacterial filament

Free-living and pathogens:

Treponema pallidum = syphilis

Borrelia burgdorferi = Lyme disease

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya8

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Chlamydias

Spirochetes

Gram Positive: very diverse

Actinomycetes: branched chains

tuberculosis, leprosy

Soil: Streptomyces antibiotics

Solitary: Bacillus, Clostridium

anthrax, botulism

Staphylococcus: clusters

Streptococcus: chains

“hospital diseases”

Mycoplasmas 0.1m

walking pneumonia

Kingdom Bacteria

Universal Ancestor

domain prokarya9

Domain Prokarya

Proteobacteria

Chlamydias

Spirochetes

Gram Positive

Cyanobacteria

likely source of

chloroplast by

endosymbiosis

Kingdom Bacteria

unicell, colony, filament

photoautotrophs:

CO2 + H2O O2 + CH2O

heterocysts: N2 fixation

N2 + H+ + ATP NH4+

Universal Ancestor