michel savy savy@enpc fr professor enpc and university of paris 12 director opste www cnt fr l.
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Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Lectures on freight : contemporary economics and policy issues Structure and strategy of freight industry Michel Savy savy@enpc.fr professor, ENPC and University of Paris 12 director, OPSTE ( www.cnt.fr ) 1. Road transport

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michel savy savy@enpc fr professor enpc and university of paris 12 director opste www cnt fr

Aristotle University of ThessalonikiLectures on freight : contemporary economicsand policy issuesStructure and strategyof freight industry

Michel Savy

savy@enpc.fr

professor, ENPC and University of Paris 12

director, OPSTE ( www.cnt.fr )

interest of the topics road haulage
Interest of the topics (road haulage)
  • Transport production is still strongly structured according to modes, intermodal transport is limited
  • Dominant position of road in inland freight transport in Europe
    • quantitative domination
    • sets reference price and quality of service for other solutions
  • The organisation of road haulage market is an example and gives proper keys to understand all other modes
    • industrial economics
    • transport, organisation, logistics

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

modal split in europe 1970 2004 ecmt 44 members t km

70,0

60,0

50,0

Rail

40,0

Road

IWW

30,0

Pipeline

20,0

10,0

0,0

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Modal split in Europe 1970-2004 (ECMT, 44 members, %, t.km)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

differences in modal split within eu 27

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

Inland waterways

50%

Rail

Road

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

CY

MT

EL

IE

ES

PT

DK

LU

IT

UK

FR

BE

FI

CZ

DE

NL

AT

SE

HU

PL

SK

SI

LT

EE

LV

EU

25

Differences in modal split, within EU 27

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

structure of road haulage
Structure of road haulage
  • Technical specialisations
    • local
    • interurban
    • vehicle renting with driver
    • removal
  • Economies of scale ?
    • limits in vehicles size
    • network effects, organisation ?
  • Interaction between firms within haulage industry

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

average size of road transport firms in european union
Average size of road transport firms in European Union

NB : firms and not groups

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

road transport structure 4 criterion
Road transport structure (4 criterion)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

turnover per capita
Turnover per capita

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

investment per capita
Investment per capita

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

subcontracting rate in turnover
Subcontracting rate in turnover

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

share of investments apart from transport equipment
Share of investments apart from transport equipment

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

division of labour
Division of labour
  • Inside road haulage, a division of labour
    • no dualism, "bipolarisation"
    • hierarchical interaction (integration of organisation, uneven profitability)
    • no gap between transport and freight organisation
  • Freight organisation
    • parcel service (!)
    • chartering
    • international transport organisation (freight-forwarding)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

share of investments apart from transport equipment15
Share of investments apart from transport equipment

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

other criterion for classification
Other criterion for classification
  • Statistic division only partly corresponds to actual market divisions
    • transhipment
    • type of product, size and packaging of consignment
    • served territory
    • quality of service, additional services
    • make or buy ?

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

the rule of 3 10 n
The "rule" of 3.10n
  • n = 0, from 0 to 3 kg, courrier and small parcels
  • n = 1, parcel service up to 30 kg
  • n = 2, traditional parcel service (several parcels for one consignment) and heavy parcels, up to pallets (average 300 kg)
  • n = 3, bulking, 1 to 3 tons consignments
  • n = 4, full truck load, according to type of product and of packaging

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

from transport to logistics
From transport to logistics

Transport and warehousing

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

tendencies
Tendencies
  • Concentration
    • multi specialist groups setting up
    • multinational
    • following changes in production and distribution (flexibility)
    • tracking and tracing, IT
    • transport, logistics, supply chain
  • Bipolarisation

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

two types of transport market 1 and organisation 2
Two types of transport: market (1) and organisation (2)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

biggest transport groups in the world 2005
Biggest transport groups in the world (2005)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

acquisitions of deutsche post ag
Acquisitions of Deutsche Post AG
  • DHL
  • Securicor (UK)
  • Trans-O-Flex (Germany))
  • Ducros (France)
  • Danzas (Switzerland)
  • Nedloyd (Netherlands)
  • ASG (Sweden)
  • Air Express International (air freight-forwarding US)
  • Burlington (inland parcel service US)
  • Exel (which bought Tibbett and Britten)
  • BPD (Belgium)
  • TNT Netlog (Germany)
  • ITG (Germany)
  • GP Paketlogistik (Switzerland)
  • Guipuzcoana (Spain)
  • MIT (Italy)
  • Sevisco (Poland)
  • Quickstep (Austria, Switzerland, Tcshek Republic)
  • Van Gend & Loos (Benelux)
  • Sernadis, Arcatime (France)

Technical and commercial integration (DHL)

Staff : 500 000 Turnover : 55 G€

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

biggest groups for post transport logistics 2003
Biggest groups for post, transport, logistics (2003)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

biggest 3pl 2004
Biggest 3PL (2004)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

biggest freight forwarders 2004
Biggest freight-forwarders (2004)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

biggest shipping companies liners 2005
Biggest shipping companies, liners (2005)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

port terminal operators in europe
Port terminal operators in Europe

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

biggest airline companies and airports freight
Biggest airline companies and airports (freight)

Italiques : intégrateurs

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

specialisation versatility of groups
Specialisation / versatility of groups

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

late hays portfolio of activities
Late Hays portfolio of activities
  • parcel service
  • express parcel
  • transfer of funds
  • logistics
  • archiving
  • invoicing
  • equipment renting
  • organisation of fairs and exhibitions
  • staff recruitment
  • surveillance
  • real estate management
  • maintenance
  • systems of communication
  • services informatiques
  • software development
  • e-commerce
  • etc.

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

express an unfinished globalisation
Express: an unfinished globalisation

CA 2003

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007

perspectives
Perspectives
  • Situation is not stable
  • Heterogeneous situation in Europe, some firms and countries in dominating position
  • Geographic strategy, European market control, enlargement
  • Multimodal alliances, joint-ventures, fusions ?
  • Continental models (Europe – USA – Japan)
    • integrated groups
    • marketing coordination of means providing companies
  • Worldwide alliances, global players ?

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki May 14th 2007