AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (water-associated organisms) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (water-associated organisms)

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  1. AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES(water-associated organisms) • Non-native (exotic) • Uncontrollable • Ecologic & Economic Harm

  2. UTAH’S AIS PATHOGENS Whirling Disease Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia FUNGUS & ALGAE Chytrid Didymo

  3. PLANTS Phragmites Tamarisk Purple Loosestrife Eurasian Water Milfoil Curly Pond Weed MOLLUSKS New Zealand Mud Snail Red-rimmed Melania Asian Clam Non-native Crayfish Dreissena Mussels Quagga Zebra Conrad’s False UTAH’S AIS

  4. FISH Mosquito Fish Burbot Gizzard Shad Other non-native fish AMPHIBIANS Bullfrog Green Frog Plains Leopard Frog Rio Grande Leopard Frog UTAH’S AIS

  5. REPTILES Red-eared Slider New Mexico Whiptail OTHER Discarded Aquarium Fauna or Flora (e.g. gold fish) Aqua-scaping Bait Releases Private Aquaculture UTAH’S AIS

  6. Prepare a Mgmt Plan UDWR (chair) DNR (SP&R, Water Resources) UT Dept Ag DEQ USFWS USFS BLM NPS BOR URMCC Water Conservancy Districts UT Angler Assoc. Industry Water Users UDWR’s Team Aquatic Coordinator Outreach Coordinator 5 AIS Biologists 22 Wildlife Technicians 5 Conservation Officers $1.64 Million/yr Utah’s AIS Task Force

  7. Dreissena Mussel ExampleQuagga, Zebra & Conrad’s FalseA Threat To Utah“forever keep them out” or “forever live with them” Utah Division of Wildlife Resources

  8. Dreissena Spread Rapidly Native to Russia--spread throughout Europe Arrived St. Lawrence Seaway mid 1980s Spread: Great Lakes, Canada & U.S. Mississippi River Basin to New Orleans East & Mid West US (100th Meridian) January 2007 Arrived Western U.S. Lower Colorado River * Mead (NV) * Mohave (AZ) * Havasu (CA) Lake Powell, August 07

  9. Map

  10. Understanding Dreissena Mussels • Invasive, non-native • Quagga, Zebra & Conrad’s False • Species much alike (two-shelled – like a clam) • Sexual Reproduction via Spawning (3 mm) • 1,000,000 veligers per year • Colonies can be 12” deep • Quagga are a greater problem • colder, deeper & soft substrates • Quagga displaces Zebra • Adult: Zebra = 12 mm; Quagga = 20 mm • Larvae: Veligers = microscopic to sand grain sized

  11. DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTSMaintenance Perspective Typical Maintenance Expenditures in the East • 51% electric generation (steam & hydro) • 31% water treatment • 18% industrial & other water users • East: maintenance @ $100 million/year • West: maintenance @ $10 million/year • Utah: estimated to exceed $15 million/year • $3.2 million--electric generation (steam & hydro)—63 plants) • $7.2 million--water treatment—30 plants • $4.4 million—industrial & other water users • $?? million--pipelines (1,120 miles) & canals (4,573 miles)

  12. DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTSRecreational Expenditure Perspective • Nationally: anglers expend $40 billion annually • Utah: anglers expend $708 million annually • Reduced angler participation may occur: • Decreased fish condition (length & weight) • Fish die offs due to blue-green algae blooms • Species change to less desirable species • Deteriorated recreational satisfaction • Odor • Sharp shells • Risk to equipment (overheat engines)

  13. Dreissena Environmental Impacts • They Are Filter Feeders: • Remove plankton, removing fish food • Filter volume of Lake Erie in 36 hours!! • Feces Cause High Coliform Counts • Pseudo Feces Rots • Smell • Oxygen depletion • Blue-green algae, which releases toxin • Stimulate Avian Botulism

  14. When Fish Chow Disappears Lake Michigan Lake Trout declined 95% in 10 years--WHY? Utah’s Waters *Plankton decrease Likely *Species change Likely *Decreased “K” (length & weight) Likely *Loss of native mollusks Likely

  15. How Mussels Move • Veligers Drift Downstream • Trailered Boats • Infested to non-infested waters • Failure to Drain bilge • Failure to Drainlive wells • Failure to Dry (5 days in UT) • Failure to Remove plants or animals • Failure to Wash w/HOT water RISKS • Large commercial boats (huge risk) • Owner-pulled boats (less risk)

  16. Dreissena Became A Western U.S. Problem January 2007 Quagga • Lower Colorado River • Lake Mead • Lake Mohave • Lake Havasu • Colorado River • NV Fish Hatchery • CA Reservoir (Copper Basin)

  17. Dreissena Now a Utah Problem • Top 20 destinations of Lake Mead boaters • #3 Lake Powell • #11 Pineview Reservoir • #12 Bear Lake • #14 Willard Bay • #19 Jordanelle Reservoir August 2007– veligers detected in Lake Powell • 29% of Utah’s Boaters Use Lake Powell • Where Do Lake Powell Boaters Go In Utah ? EVERY WHERE

  18. IMPACTS: Industrial Plants Lots of Industries in Utah Use Water • Constricted water intakes • Constricted water circulation systems • Increased: • biologic load • corrosion • plant operation costs

  19. IMPACTS: Pipelines Over 1,120 miles of pipelines in Utah • Greatly reduced flow capacity • Its not just on the outside; its inside, too • 2ND Water Systems: plugged--pipes & sprinklers • Increased maintenance cost ????

  20. IMPACTS: Canals Over 4,573 miles of canals in Utah • Open-channel flow capacity reduced • Earth-lined: 24% less flow • Concrete-lined: 52% less flow • Increased maintenance cost ????

  21. IMPACTS: Reservoirs 150 reservoirs @100+ ac (Storage & Recreation) • Seasonal Water Level Changes = routine • Die Offs (fish & waterfowl) • Deteriorated water quality & odor • Difficult beach use: clean up $$$$ • Increased maintenance cost ????

  22. HOW DO WE DEAL WITH DREISSENASuccessful Mussel Prevention Example • Minnesota: Land of 10,000 Lakes • 20 years exposure: commercial & recreation vessels • 4 lakes & Mississippi River infested • Effective Aquatic Nuisance Species Plan • Emphasis on public education & awareness • 12 full-time employees • 45 summer watercraft inspectors • Illegal drive w/any mussel • $2.3 million annual budget

  23. Emergency Responses in Utah: NPS NPS Initiated Self-Certification at Lake Powell • Education & Outreach • Media Coverage • “Zap the Zebra” brochures • Entry warning signs • Self-certification • Interdictions • Decontamination • Containment ???? • Monitoring & Research • Training (UDWR & SP&R and others)

  24. Emergency Response in Utah: UDWR DNR Policy: Prevent Invasion of Dreissena Mussel • UDWR: Lead State Agency • Inter-state & Interagency Coordination • Quagga Education & Implementation Plan • Education & Outreach • Statewide: Media Coverage • Statewide: 250,000 “Zap the Zebra” brochures (Included all 65,000 UT Boat Owners) • Statewide: 1,500 boat launch signs • Statewide: 4,500 posters • Statewide: sportsmen/agency lectures • Interdiction • Decontamination of Equipment • Containment ???? • Monitoring & Research • Training (UDWR & SP&R and Others)

  25. Utah’s AIS Future I. Maintain Sufficient Budget: FY08 $1,106,500 FY09 $1,640,000 II. Secure Legislation for an Interdiction Act III. Write AIS Management Plan IV. Be Vigilant ……………………..…………………….. Memmorandum From: UDWR To: Aquatic Invasive Species Subject:Watch Out, We’re Coming!