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Feed Inputs to Animals. Bob von Bernuth. Considerations in a Ration/Diet. Energy Proteins & Amino Acids Minerals Vitamins Non-nutritative additives. Energy. Energy is produced when organic molecules undergo oxidation. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 => 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy.

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feed inputs to animals

Feed Inputs to Animals

Bob von Bernuth

considerations in a ration diet
Considerations in a Ration/Diet
  • Energy
  • Proteins & Amino Acids
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Non-nutritative additives
energy
Energy
  • Energy is produced when organic molecules undergo oxidation.

C6H12O6 + 6 O2=> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy

proteins and amino acids
Proteins and Amino Acids
  • Proteins are amino acids
  • There are limiting amino acids
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • A lot of others!
    • They should be balanced
  • Amino acids are the main source of N
    • Limiting amino acids results in reducing N excretion.
minerals animals generally have a dietary requirement for
Calcium

Chlorine

Copper

Iodine

Iron

Magnesium

Manganese

Phosphorus

Potassium

Selenium

Sodium

Sulfur

Zinc

MineralsAnimals generally have a dietary requirement for
importance of phosphorus
Importance of Phosphorus
  • One of the most important minerals required by livestock and poultry.
  • Complexes with calcium to give rigidity to bones.
  • An integral part of many organic compounds – plays important roles in energy and protein metabolism.
  • Almost every biochemical reaction that occurs in muscle, blood and other soft tissues involves phosphorus.
  • Affects protein synthesis, lean deposition in growing animals.
phosphorus requirements
Phosphorus Requirements
  • Best source of unbiased information on requirements is the nutrient requirement publications of the National Research Council (NRC).
  • NRC is part of the National Academy of Sciences – a private organization established 140 years ago by President Abraham Lincoln to advise the nation on issues of science and technology.
  • The Committee on Animal Nutrition of the NRC has established guidelines for feeding animals for past 75 years.
swine versus dairy
Swine versus Dairy
  • Swine are a monogastric
  • Dairy cattle are ruminants
    • Ruminants have a rumen (large stomach)
    • Rumen contains bacteria which produce phytase enzyme—breaks down phytate feedstuffs
    • Nonruminants don’t
swine considerations
Swine Considerations
  • Since they don’t have phytase—we have to overfeed P in order to ensure adequate available P.
  • Or—we can add phytase—it works in swine, it just isn’t produced there (it also works for poultry)
  • Or—we can use low phytate corn
phosphorus
Phosphorus
  • Essential for skeletal system development
  • Generally low availability
    • Feedstuffs—60-75% is phytate (not available)
      • Corn grain—14%
      • Soybean meal—23-30%
    • What happens to the rest?
nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manures
Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Animal Manures

N P

(% of DM)

Manure from:

Swine 4.71 2.97

Poultry 5.13 1.62

Beef 3.96 1.07

Dairy 3.75 0.79

Sheep 3.89 0.56

Sweeten (1992).

swine and poultry manure high in phosphorus why
Swine and Poultry Manure High in Phosphorus - Why?
  • Diets (especially swine diets) generally tend to be oversupplemented with phosphorus.
  • Grains, oilseed meals in swine and poultry diets are high in phytate phosphorus.
  • Pigs and poultry are unable to degrade phytase and utilize the phosphorus - no phytase in their digestive tract.
  • As a result, most of dietary phosphorus from the natural ingredients is excreted in the feces.
phytic acid the culprit

O

O

O-

-O

P

P

-O

O-

O

O

-O

O-

O

O

P

P

O

O

O-

-O

O

O-

O

-O

P

P

-O

O-

O

O

Phytic Acid – The Culprit
phytate phosphorus

Ca++

O

O

O-

-O

P

P

Zn++

-O

Cu++

O-

O

O

-O

O-

O

O

P

P

O

O

O-

-O

O

O-

O

-O

Zn++

Mg++

P

P

-O

O-

O

O

Fe++

Phytate Phosphorus
phytate phosphorus content of cereal grains byproducts and oilseed meals
Phytate Phosphorus Content of Cereal Grains, Byproducts, and Oilseed Meals

Phytate Phosphorus

% of total P % of total P

Barley 56 Wheat bran 70

Oats 56 Wheat middlings 74

Corn 66

Wheat 67 Soybean meal 61

Grain sorghum 68 Cottonseed meal 70

Sesame meal 81

Nelson et al. (1968).

nutritional strategies to reduce phosphorus in swine manure
Nutritional Strategies to Reduce Phosphorus in Swine Manure
  • Feed diets that are not excessive in phosphorus.
  • Formulate diets on an “available phosphorus” basis.
  • Use feedstuffs that are low in phytate or that have endogenous phytase.
    • Wheat, wheat byproducts, triticale, barley.
  • Reduce dietary phosphorus and supplement with phytase.
  • Use low-phytate cereals and oilseed meals.
model predicted p excretion kg in growing finishing pig fed corn soy diet from 20 to 120 kg
Model-Predicted P Excretion (kg) in Growing-Finishing Pig Fed Corn-Soy Diet from 20 to 120 kg

79% More P

Excreted

phytase what does it do
Phytase – What Does it Do?
  • Increases phytate digestibility - increases bioavailability of P in cereal grains and oilseed meals.
  • Reduces the amount of supplemental inorganic P needed to maximize growth and bone mineralization.
  • Markedly reduces fecal P excretion.
  • Increases the absorption of Ca, Mg, Zn, and other divalent cations.
  • May improve the utilization of dietary protein and energy.
slide20

Forms of Phosphorus in Germ of Normal and Mutant lpa1 Corn

Other Organic P

Inorganic P

Phytic Acid P

Raboy et al. (1990)

soluble carbohydrates in soybean

UDP

UDP-Glu

UDP-Gal

UDP

Sucrose

2

Fructose

Galactinol

Myo-Inositol

3

1

ADP

Glu6P

Myo-Inositol

Glucose

+

Fructose

Raffinose

ATP

Phytic

Acid

Galactinol

4

1

Myo-Inositol, 1P Synthase

Myo-Inositol

2

Galactinol Synthase

Stachyose

Raffinose Synthase

3

Stachyose Synthase

4

Sucrose

Soluble Carbohydrates in Soybean

dairy considerations
Dairy Considerations
  • A dairy cow has phytase. Perhaps because of the large amount of feed she eats (50-60 lb/day) some phytase might help.
  • However, we tend to overfeed P.
why do we overfeed p
Why Do We Overfeed P?
  • Safety margin Not needed
  • Increased milk yield Doesn’t work
  • Hypophasphatemia Doesn’t help
  • Improves reproduction Data ???
  • P in feed unknown No excuse
you get back what you put in
You Get Back What You Put In!
  • P has no gaseous phase
    • It can’t escape to the air
    • If you fed it, it’s in the animal, the milk or the excretion.
    • If you manure sample doesn’t show it, you better look for it.