Objectives • By the end of the session you will: • Identify the skills needed in summarizing • Apply skills by summarizing a passage • Know research and key strategies
Summarizing • How do I help students effectively interact with new knowledge? • How do I help students deepen and enhance their learning?
Research Says: • To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information. • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information.
What does summarizing do for students? • Summarizing helps students make connections to material and content. • Summarizing helps students understand what is important in the text • Summarizing helps students synthesize material
“Rule-Based Strategy” • Delete material that is not necessary to understanding • Delete redundant material • Substitute superordinate terms for lists (for example, “flowers” for “daisies, tulips, and roses”) • Select or invent a topic sentence
Strategies for Younger Students • Take out material that isn’t important for your understanding. • Take out words that repeat information. • Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list. • Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up
Let’s try this summarizing strategy on a sample passage. Find Why Does Studying Solar Wind Tell Us About the Origin of Our Solar System?
Most scientists believe our solar system was formed 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of the solar nebula, a cloud of interstellar gas, dust, and ice created from previous generations of stars. As time went on the grains of ice and dust bumped into and stuck to one another, eventually forming the planets, moons, comets, and asteroids as we know them today.
(New Paragraph)Most scientists believe our solar system was formed 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of the solar nebula. As time went on grains from the solar nebula stuck to one another, eventually forming the heavenly bodies we know today.
Summary Frame • Questions help student focus on elements for specific information. • A summary frame is a series of questions a teacher provides to students.
Narrative Frame Pattern Stories and other narratives commonly include the following elements: • Characters • Setting • Initiating event • Internal response • Goal • Consequence • Resolution
Guiding Questions for the Narrative Frame • Who are the main characters? And what distinguishes them from other characters? • When and where did the story take place? What were the special circumstances? • What prompted the action in the story? • How did the characters express their feelings? • What did the main characters decide to do? Did they set a goal? What was it? • How did the main characters try to accomplish their goals? • What were the consequences?
Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame Expository text and commonly include the following: • TOPIC: General statement about the topic to be discussed • RESTRICTION: Limits the information in some way • ILLUSTRATION: Exemplifies the topic or restriction
Guiding Questions for Topic Restriction Frame • What is the general statement or topic? • What information does the author give that narrows or restricts the general statement or topic? • What examples does the author give to illustrate the topic or restriction?
Argumentation Frame Elements Attempts to support a claim: • Claim: assertion that something is true • Evidence: information that supports claim • Qualifier: restriction on claim or evidence
Guiding Questions for Argumentation Frame • What information does the author present that leads to a claim? • What does the author assert is true? What basic statement or claim is the focus of the information? • What examples or explanations support the claim? • What restrictions on the claim, or evidence counter to the claim, are presented?
Definition Frame Pattern Identifies a particular concept and identifies subordinate concepts. Term – the subject to be defined. Set – the general category to which the term belongs. Gross characteristics – those characteristics that separate the term from other elements in the set Minute differences – the different classes of objects that fall directly beneath the term.
Guiding Questions for the Definition Frame • What is being defined? To which general category does the item belong? • What characteristics separate the item from other things in the general category? • What are some different types or classes of the item being defined?
Problem/Solution Frame Identifies a pattern and then identifies one or more solutions to the problem. • Problem (a statement of something that has happened or might happen that is problematic). • Solution (possible solution) • Solution (another possible solution) • Solution (another possible solution) • Solution (identification of the solution with the greatest chance of success)
Guiding Questions for the Problem or Solution Frame • What is the problem? • What is a possible solution? • What is another possible solution? • What is another possible solution? • Which solution has the best chance of succeeding?
Conversation Frame A conversation is a verbal exchange between two or more people. It includes the following elements: • Greeting • Inquiry • Discussion (may include assertions, requests, promises, demands, threats, congratulations) • Conclusion
Guiding Questions for the Conversation Frame • How did the members of the conversation greet each other? • What question or topic was insinuated, revealed, or referred to? • How did the discussion progress? • Did either person state facts? • Did either person make a request of the other? • Did either person make a promise to perform certain actions? • Did either person demand a specific action of the other ? • Did either person threaten specific consequences if a demand was not met? • Did either person indicate that he valued something that the other had done? • How did the conversation conclude?
Reciprocal Teaching One of the best researched strategies available to teachers – involves these 4 components. • This is a great way to help students learn to summarize • It’s the first draft of a summary • It helps students engage • Summarizing • Questioning • Clarifying • Predicting