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Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 40. Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery. Cancer. When cells divide and reproduce abnormally and have the potential to spread throughout the body, crowding out normal cells and tissues

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Presentation Transcript
cancer
Cancer
  • When cells divide and reproduce abnormally and have the potential to spread throughout the body, crowding out normal cells and tissues
  • One third of the cancer deaths in the United States each year can be attributed to nutrition and other lifestyle factors.
cancer cause

Cancer—Cause

Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.

cancer pathophysiology

Cancer—Pathophysiology

Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.

cancer medical and nutritional management

Cancer—Medical and Nutritional Management

Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.

prevention factors
Prevention Factors
  • Energy balance and exercise
  • Fat
  • Protein
  • Fiber
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Chemoprevention
prevention factors cont d
Prevention Factors—cont’d
  • Alcohol
  • Coffee and tea
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines
  • Method of food preparation
fruits and vegetables
Fruits and Vegetables
  • Appear to have a protective effect against cancer
  • Thought to be due to the phytoestrogen and phytochemical content of the plant-based diet
slide9
Fat
  • Research, although controversial, has shown evidence that high-fat diets are linked to an increased risk of cancer of the breast, colon, lung, and prostate
american cancer society s dietary recommendations for cancer prevention
American Cancer Society’s Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention

1. Eat a variety of healthful foods, with an emphasis on plant sources.

2. Adopt a physically active lifestyle.

3. Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight throughout life.

4. Limit consumption of alcoholic beverages.

pharmacological agents for anorexia cachexia syndrome and weight loss management
Pharmacological Agents for Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome and Weight Loss Management
  • Appetite stimulants
  • Metabolic agents and cytokine blockers
  • Prokinetic drugs
  • Anabolic agents
factors that affect appetite

Factors That Affect Appetite

Reference: American Institute for Cancer Research: Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective, Washington, DC, 1997, AICR.

nutritional implications of cancer therapy
Nutritional Implications of Cancer Therapy
  • Chemotherapy

—Taste abnormalities, diarrhea, constipation

  • Radiation therapy

—Fatigue, loss of appetite, skin changes

  • Surgery

—Fatigue, pain, loss of appetite

  • Immunotherapy

—Flulike symptoms, decreased food intake

nutritional implications of cancer therapy cont d
Nutritional Implications of Cancer Therapy—cont’d
  • Bone marrow transplant

—Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, xerostomia, dysgeusia

  • Severe oral muscositis
  • Graft versus host disease (GVHD)
  • Veno-occlusive disease (VOD)
marrow transplantation cause

Marrow Transplantation—Cause

Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.

marrow transplantation pathophysiology

Marrow Transplantation—Pathophysiology

Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.

marrow transplantation medical and nutritional management

Marrow Transplantation—Medical and Nutritional Management

Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.

commonly used complementary and alternative therapies
Macrobiotic diet

Vegetarian diet

Gerson therapy

Kelley/Gonzales regimen

Juice therapies

Shark cartilage

DHEA

Enzymes

Oxymedicine

Coenzyme Q10

Commonly Used Complementary and Alternative Therapies
commonly used complementary and alternative therapies cont d
Black cohosh

Echinacea

Flaxseed

Ginger

Iscador

Milk thistle

PC-SPECS

Saw palmetto

Soy and soy foods

Teas

Commonly Used Complementary and Alternative Therapies—cont’d
nutrition in the etiology of cancer
Nutrition in the Etiology of Cancer
  • Epidemiologic research has evaluated the role of diet in the etiology of cancer in different population groups.
  • Diets contain inhibitors and enhancers of carcinogenesis.
  • Laboratory studies have served as models to test the effect of food and nutrition on cancer development.