slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Entomology 101 Orders of Insects PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Entomology 101 Orders of Insects

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 68

Entomology 101 Orders of Insects - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 374 Views
  • Uploaded on

Entomology 101 Orders of Insects. David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc”. The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH. © Sept, 2009, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved. Class Hexapoda (the insects). Three tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Entomology 101 Orders of Insects' - sanam


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Entomology 101

Orders of Insects

David J. Shetlar, Ph.D.

The “BugDoc”

The Ohio State University,

OARDC & OSU Extension

Columbus, OH

© Sept, 2009, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved

slide2

Class Hexapoda

(the insects)

  • Three tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen
  • Thorax with three pairs of legs; normally two pairs of wings in adult stage
  • Head with one pair of antennae
  • Respiration by trachea
  • Terrestrial & fresh water inhabitants
slide3

Class Hexapoda

(all have one pair of antennae, a head, thorax & abdominal regions, three pair of legs, adults usually have wings, use trachea)

Life Cycle Groups

  • Simple Metamorphosis (=incomplete) - egg, nymph, adult stages
  • Complete Metamorphosis - egg, larva, pupa, adult stages
slide4

Egg Nymphal Adult

Stage Stage Stage

Incomplete Metamorphosis Example

(hairy chinch bug)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th adult

instar instar instar instar instar

slide5

Incomplete Metamorphosis Example

(hairy chinch bug)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th normal wing short wing

instar instar instar instar instar adult adult

Egg Nymphal Adult

Stage Stage Stage

slide6

Egg Larval Pupal Adult

Stage Stage Stage Stage

Complete Metamorphosis Example

(May/June beetle)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult

instar instar instar

slide7

Egg Larval Pupal Adult

Stage Stage Stage Stage

Complete Metamorphosis Example

(northern masked chafer)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult

instar instar instar

slide8

Hexapod Orders

Entognathous Hexapods –

Order Protura

Order Collembola

Order Diplura

Ectognathous apterygote Hexapods –

Order Microcoryphia

Order Thysanura

Pterygote Hexapods –

(simple metamorphosis)

Order Ephemeroptera

Order Odonata

Order Orthoptera

Order Phasmatodea

Order Dermaptera

Order Plecoptera

Order Isoptera

(simple metamorphosis cont’d)

Order Mantodea

Order Blattodea

Order Hemiptera

Order Thysanoptera

Order Psocoptera

Order Phthiraptera

(complete metamorphosis)

Order Coleoptera

Order Neuroptera

Order Hymenoptera

Order Trichoptera

Order Lepidoptera

Order Siphonaptera

Order Diptera

slide9

Orders of Insects

(no metamorphosis)

  • Some consider these groups insect-like and place in different class or subclass.
  • Adults do not have wings and may molt after becoming mature
  • Thysanura - silverfish, firebrats
  • Collembola - springtails
order thysanura bristle tail silverfish firebrats
Order Thysanura (=bristle tail)silverfish & firebrats
  • Look like they have 3 tails –
    • 2 cerci
    • 1 median filament
  • Wingless (originally)
  • Most are covered with scales
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual (no) metamorphosis
  • Feed on organic matter & starches
slide11

Thysanura (=bristletail)

(silverfish, firebrats; 0.4K spp.)

[no wings as adults, usually 3 caudal appendages (two cerci and median filament); adults may continue to molt]

Silverfish

Fourlined silverfish

order collembola glue wedge springtails
Order Collembola (=glue wedge)springtails
  • Wingless (primitively)
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual (no) metamorphosis
  • Adults continue to molt
  • Feed on plants, bacteria, & fungi
  • Important as decomposers and bioindicators
slide13

Order Collembola (=glue wedge)springtails

  • Tiny, most < 3 mm
  • Collophore
    • Water regulatory structure
    • Underside 1st abdominal segment
  • Furcula
    • Forked jumping appendage
    • Underside 4th abdominal segment
    • Held bent under body
  • Escape by catapulting
slide14

Collembola (=glue wedge)

(springtails; >6K spp.)

[no wings as adults, caudal appendage designed for jumping (furcula & colliphore); adults may molt]

Springtail with furcula exposed.

Globular springtail, upper and lower views, spots on head are not eyes! Eyes are lower on head.

slide15

Aquatic springtails have waxy hairs that allow them to float on the water surface. These springtails feed on algae.

Springtails often have long hairs and multicolored scales.

slide16

Orders of Insects

(simple metamorphosis)

  • Ephemeroptera - mayflies, shadflies
  • Odonata - dragonflies, damselflies
  • Orthoptera - grasshoppers, crickets, katydids
  • Dermaptera – earwigs
  • Plecoptera - stoneflies
  • Isoptera - termites
slide17

Order Ephemeroptera (=short lived, on the wing)Mayflies

  • Nymphs (naiads) aquatic
  • Wings triangular, held over back
    • Front wings large, usually with many veins
    • Hind wings small or absent
  • Adults with 2 or 3 long caudal filaments
  • Last instar nymph flies from water (subimago)
  • Adults live for hours to a few days.
slide18

Ephemeroptera (=short lived on the wing)

(Mayflies, shadflies, Canadian soldiers; 2K spp.)

[front wings large, triangular, held over body at rest; hind wings small or absent; aquatic nymphs with abdominal gills; caudal appendages (2 or 3) long; chewing mouthparts often non-functional in adult]

Mayfly adults, one two-tailed and one three-tailed.

Mayfly naiad.

slide19

Hexagenia, large Mayfly, subimago (last instar nymph). Note cloudy wings and short tails.

Hexagenia adult. Note clear wings and long tails.

slide20

Order Odonata (=toothed – large mandibles)Dragonflies and Damselflies

  • Front & Hind Wings narrow
    • Many veins and cross veins
    • Dragonflies hold wings out at rest
    • Damselflies hold wings over back
  • Nymphs (naiads) aquatic
    • Naiads predatory, have grasping mouthparts
    • Dragonfly naiads have rectal gills
    • Damselflies have leaflike gills on abdomen tip.
  • Adults are beneficial predators.
slide21

Odonata (=toothed)

(dragonflies and damselflies; 5K spp.)

[front and hind wings narrow with many cross veins, membranous; aquatic nymphs (naiads) predatory with caudal or rectal gills; antennae bristlelike, no abdominal cerci; chewing mouthparts]

order orthoptera straight wing grasshoppers crickets
Order Orthoptera (=straight wing) grasshoppers & crickets
  • Two pairs wings
    • Forewings leathery & narrow; protect
    • Hindwings membranous, fan-folded
    • Some are wingless (cave crickets)
  • Most have hind legs enlarged for jumping
  • Females have prominent ovipositor
  • Produce songs by rubbing wing bases together or rubbing the wings on their legs
order orthoptera straight wing grasshoppers crickets1
Order Orthoptera (straight wing) grasshoppers & crickets
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual metamorphosis
  • Antennae short or long
  • Most feed on plants
  • Some feed on organic matter, stored products; few predatory
slide26

Orthoptera (=straight wing)

(grasshoppers, crickets, Katydids; >20K spp.)

[front wings leathery, hind wings folded like a fan, chewing mouthparts, two cerci - usually short]

order dermaptera skin wing earwigs
Order Dermaptera (=skin wing)earwigs
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual metamorphosis
  • Omnivorous
    • Mostly scavengers
    • Occasional pests of plants
  • Nuisance pest in homes
order dermaptera skin wing earwigs1
Order Dermaptera (=skin wing) earwigs
  • Cerci shaped like forceps, pinchers
    • Defense, prey capture, mating
  • Elongate, flattened
  • Two pairs of wings
    • Forewings usually short, hard
    • Hindwings membranous, folded
    • Few species are wingless
slide32

Dermaptera (=skin wing)

(earwigs; 1.8K spp.)

[front wings short, leathery; hind wings double folded; abdominal cerci forceps-like; chewing mouthparts]

Seashore earwig adult

European earwig with eggs

slide33

Order Plecoptera (=folded wing)Stoneflies

  • Nymphs Aquatic (naiads)
    • Abdominal &/or thoracic gills
    • Predators & herbivores
    • Flat with obvious cerci
  • Chewing Mouthparts
  • Adults with
    • Front wing narrow, bladelike
    • Hind wing broad, flolded
    • Medium to long cerci
  • Good indicators of water quality
slide34

Plecoptera (=folded wing)

(stoneflies; 2K spp.)

[front wings narrow; hind wings folded fanlike; aquatic nymphs (naiads) with abdominal gills; abdominal cerci straight, moderately long; chewing mouthparts]

order isoptera equal wing termites
Order Isoptera (equal wing)termites
  • Social
  • Reproductives (queens & kings)
    • Four wings of equal size
    • Wings twice the length of the body
    • Wings lack cross-veins
  • Workers & soldiers
    • Lack wings
    • Body white
    • Distinguish from ants:
      • Lack of elbowed antennae
      • No constriction between abdomen & thorax
order isoptera equal wing termites1
Order Isoptera (=equal wing)termites
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual metamorphosis
  • Feed on wood and plant materials
    • Protozoans digest cellulose
    • Significant structural pest
  • Build distinctive nests
slide38

Isoptera (equal wing)

(termites; >2.3K spp.)

[social insects, winged reproductives with both wings same size and membranous; straight or curved antennae consists of beadlike segments; abdomen broadly joined to thorax; one to two-segmented cerci; chewing mouthparts]

slide40

Nasutiform termite nest in tree.

Nasutiform soldiers protecting opened nest.

slide41

Orders of Insects

(incomplete metamorphosis cont’d)

  • Mantoidea – mantids
  • Blattodea – cockroaches
  • Hemiptera - true bugs & bug-like insects
  • Thysanoptera - thrips
  • Psocoptera - barklice, booklice
  • Phthiraptera - biting & sucking lice
order mantodea soothsayer mantids praying mantid
Order Mantodea (=soothsayer)mantids / praying mantid
  • Large (50-100 mm)
  • Forelegs modified for grasping prey
  • Predatory
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual metamorphosis
slide43

Mantodea (=soothsayer)

(mantids, praying mantis; ~1.8K spp.)

[front legs raptorial (modified for grasping), prothroax elongated, chewing mouthparts, two short cerci]

order blattodea l cockroach cockroaches
Order Blattodea (=L. cockroach) cockroaches
  • Flattened body
  • Long slender antennae
  • Wings thickened, leathery
  • Wings reduced in some species
  • Legs modified for running
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual metamorphosis
  • Feed on organic matter, stored products, plants
slide45

Blattodea (L. cockroach)

(cockroaches; <4K spp.)

[body flattened and oval, front wings leathery, hind wings folded like a fan, chewing mouthparts, two short cerci]

order hemiptera half wing true bugs bug like insects
Order Hemiptera (=half wing)true bugs & bug-like insects
  • Formerly 2 separate orders; recently combined
  • Suborder Heteroptera
  • Suborders Auchenorrhyncha & Sternorrhyncha (former Homoptera)
suborder heteroptera the true bugs
Suborder Heteroptera the true bugs
  • Piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • Prominent beak arises from front of head
  • Two pairs of wings on most
    • Forewings: thickened front halves
    • Hindwings: membranous
    • Forewings lay flat, overlapping
  • Scutellum (▼-shaped)
suborder heteroptera true bugs
Suborder Heteroptera true bugs
  • Many have scent glands
  • Plant feeders, predators, blood feeders
  • Gradual metamorphosis
slide49

Hemiptera (s.o. Heteroptera)

(half wing) (true bugs; 23K spp.)

[front wings half leathery & half membranous; hind wings membranous; usually long antennae; sucking mouthparts arise from front of head]

slide52
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha leafhoppers, cicadas& Suborder Sternorrhynchaaphids,whiteflies, scales, psyllids, mealybugs
  • Piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • Beak arises from rear underside of head
suborders auchenorrhyncha sternorrhyncha
Suborders Auchenorrhyncha & Sternorrhyncha
  • Wings:
    • Uniformly textured
    • Some have 4 wings
    • Some have 2 wings (in males of some species)
    • Some have no wings
    • Wings often held roof-like over the body
suborders auchenorrhyncha sternorrhyncha1
Suborders Auchenorrhyncha & Sternorrhyncha
  • Gradual metamorphosis
  • All are plant feeders
  • Many are vectors of plant disease
slide55

Hemiptera (s.o. Auchenorrhyncha)

(buglike insects: cicadas, leaf, plant & tree hoppers; 33K spp.)

[front wings same texture throughout, leathery or membranous (wings often absent); long or bristlelike antennae; sucking mouthparts arise from back of head or between front legs]

slide56

Hemiptera (s.o. Sternorrhyncha)

(buglike insects: psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs, & scales)

order thysanoptera fringe wing thrips singular plural
Order Thysanoptera (=fringe wing)thrips (singular & plural!)
  • Small (most <4 mm), elongate
  • Chewing mouthparts
    • Small conical beak
    • Rasping mouthparts
  • Most with 4 wings
    • Strap-like
    • Fringed with long bristles
    • Some species are wingless
order thysanoptera fringe wing thrips
Order Thysanoptera (=fringe wing)thrips
  • Plant feeders or predators
  • Flowers are favored
  • Gradual metamorphosis but more intermediate: egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult
  • Thrips: only plural form of word!
slide59

Thysanoptera (=fringe wing)

(thrips; 4.5K spp.)

[small; front and hind wings bladelike with hair fringe, often absent; mouthparts modified rasping sucking; antennae short]

slide61

Order Psocoptera (=rub wings)psocids, booklice, barklice

  • Small, soft-bodied
  • Front of head bulging
  • Wings present or absent
    • Reduced veins when present
    • Often reduced (brachypterous)
  • Chewing mouthparts
    • Eat molds & mildews
    • Barklice feed on lichens
slide62

Psocoptera (=rub small wing)

(psocids, booklice, barklice; >3K spp.)

[front wings with reduced venation; hind wings reduced or absent; wings often absent; distinctive frontal bulge on head; long antennae; chewing mouthparts; booklice are extremely flattened]

order phthiraptera lice without wings
Order Phthiraptera(=lice without wings)
  • Formerly 2 separate orders
  • Suborder Mallophaga (wool eater): chewing lice
  • Suborder Anoplura (unarmed tail): sucking lice
order phthiraptera lice without wings suborder mallophaga wool eater chewing lice
Order Phthiraptera(=lice without wings),Suborder Mallophaga (=wool eater)chewing lice
  • Small, hard, dorso-ventrally flattened
  • Wingless
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Head usually broadly rounded & wider than prothorax
  • Gradual metamorphosis
  • Feed mostly on birds, some mammals
slide65

Phthiraptera (Mallophaga)

(lice without wings) (biting lice; 2.7K spp.)

[very flat, small; no wings; chewing mouthparts; external parasites of birds and mammals]

Chicken biting louse

order phthiraptera lice without wings suborder anoplura unarmed tail sucking lice
Order Phthiraptera(=lice without wings),Suborder Anoplura (=unarmed tail)sucking lice
  • Small, hard, dorso-ventrally flattened
  • Wingless
  • Piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • Head narrower than prothorax
  • Suck blood of mammals
  • Gradual metamorphosis
slide68

Phthiraptera (Anoplura)

(sucking lice; 0.3K spp.)

[small, flattened; no wings; sucking mouthparts; external parasites of mammals]

Human head louse

Human crab louse