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Revision for Inference. Q1: Study Source A. What is the purpose of Source A?. The purpose of Source A is to expose the lies propagated by the USSR officials, and to show that the Russians have not benefitted from Communism.

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q1 study source a what is the purpose of source a
Q1: Study Source A. What is the purpose of Source A?
  • The purpose of Source A is to expose the lies propagated by the USSR officials, and to show that the Russians have not benefitted from Communism.
  • This can be seen from the portrayal of the Russian peasant, as a bony skeleton. This suggests that the Russians have experienced starvation under Communism, and that life is worse now than it was previously.
  • Moreover, they also have been subjected to terror under the Communist regime in order to cow them into submission, as seen from the OPGU agent standing behind the peasant, pointing a gun at him.
  • The tone adopted in this source is mocking, as seen from the ironic contrast between the message in the sign “We are perfectly happy” and the reality of starvation.
  • The French cartoonist’s purpose would be to expose the lies propagated by the USSR officials to show that contrary to the propaganda that has been coming out of the USSR, that in reality, the Russians were suffering under Communism. By doing so, he is also suggesting to his French audience that Communism has not worked, and to warn them against the lies propagated by the French Communist Party.
question 2 study source b what is the message in source b
Question 2: Study Source B. What is the message in Source B.
  • Source B’s message is that Japanese society in the 1930s was a very militaristic and nationalistic one.
  • This can be seen clearly from the regimental jogging exercises that both the boys and girls (at the back) have to go through. The neat files reveals that this was a rigid society that emphasized a lot on military discipline.
  • Moreover, they are wearing white bandanas with the Japanese flag on it, which seems to suggest that they were doing this for the greater good of the nation.
  • The perspective of the photo also reveals that it is largely a patriarchal society as the boys were placed ahead of the girls.
  • As this was an official photograph taken in the 1930s, it is most probably a piece of government propaganda, whose purpose would be to use this school as a positive example, so as to encourage physical education amongst other schools.
question 3 study source d what was japanese society like in the 1930s
Question 3: Study Source D. What was Japanese society like in the 1930s?
  • Japanese society in the 1930s had a mixture of conservative and radical forces.
  • This can be seen from the presence of conservative national organisations, such as the ‘cultivation groups’ which aimed to make ‘boys and young men into loyal imperial subjects’ and instill efficiency and obedience amongst the workers.
  • However, there were also radical forces, represented by the factory workers who “resisted the middle class values set out by the cultivation groups” and expressed their discontentment by writing letters to union and women’s publications.
  • The perspective given here is quite balanced, and provides two opposing perspectives of Japanese society, by showing both the supporters and the opponents of these cultivation groups.
  • As this is a historical account published in 2000 about Japanese society, its purpose would be to educate the wider public about Japan in the 1930s, so as to provide a more balanced perspective to the prevailing interpretation that the Japanese society in the 1930s was a conservative one.
question 4 study source c does the cartoonist approve of kennedy s decision
Question 4: Study Source C. Does the cartoonist approve of Kennedy’s decision?
  • No, the cartoonist does not approve of Kennedy’s decision to give in to USSR, as he thinks that this will lead to the USSR asking for more concessions from America, which may ultimately destabilise the security of Europe.
  • This is seen from the caption, which is Khrushchev’s words to Castro, and clearly shows that Khrushchev does not intend to honour his promise about removing Soviet missiles from Cuba, but wants to use it as a bargaining chip to get America to remove its rockets from Turkey and subsequently Germany and beyond.
  • That this caption contradicts the message in the letter given to Kennedy “We’ll take our bases out of Cuba if you’ll take yours out of Turkey” shows clearly the cartoonist’s opinion that Khrushchev is not trustworthy, and that Kennedy should not have cut a deal with him.
  • The tone of the source is mocking, as the cartoonist portrays a puzzled Kennedy, in contrast to a relaxed Castro and Khrushchev, as seen from their body language and cigars. This cartoon is thus mocking America, as it is seen to be at a disadvantage, being clueless about Khrushchev’s intention, whereas Cuba and USSR have the advantage as they are the ones pulling the strings.
  • The purpose of this British cartoon is thus to express his disapproval over Kenndy’s decision to give in to Khrushchev, and to warn the British government that this appeasement of the USSR will have severe repercussions on the security of Europe and Britain.