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Integrated Pest Management Cockroaches/Bed Bugs. Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles. The link between housing and health. What is a healthy home?. What is so important about a healthy home?. Housing conditions can affect health both directly and indirectly.

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Integrated pest management cockroaches bed bugs

Integrated Pest ManagementCockroaches/Bed Bugs

Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles

What is so important about a healthy home
What is so important about a healthy home?

Housing conditions can affect health both directly and indirectly.

Children spend close to 80-90% of their time indoors.

Health effects that are associated with housing conditions
Health effects that are associated with housing conditions

  • Respiratory infections

  • Asthma

  • Injuries and burns

  • Allergies

  • Poisonings

  • Neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems

  • Cancer

  • Death

Steps to a healthier home
Steps to a healthier home

Keep the Home/Building:

  • Dry

  • Clean

  • Ventilated

  • Safe

  • Contaminant-free

  • Maintained

  • Pest-free

    Today we are going to focus on keeping the home pest-free.

Why pest free the health effects of pest exposure
Why Pest Free? - the health effects of pest exposure

More than just a nuisance-pests in the home are a health issue…

  • Cockroaches, flies, fleas, rats and mice carry disease.

  • Roaches and house dust mites can make allergies and asthma worse.

  • Roaches can also bite and crawl into children’s ears.

Why pest free the health effects of pesticide exposure
Why Pest Free?-the health effects of pesticide exposure

  • Acute health effects of pesticide exposure include:

    • Eye, nose, and throat irritation

    • Skin rashes

    • Nausea and

    • Asthma attacks.

  • Long-term effects of pesticide exposure include:

    • Cancer

    • Birth defects

    • Central nervous system damage

    • Respiratory damage and

    • Endocrine disruption.

Drawbacks of conventional approach to pest control
Drawbacks of Conventional Approach to Pest Control

  • Potential liability for property owners and managers (tenant injury from pesticide exposure).

  • Ineffective in controlling pests.

  • Little or no communication between tenant, property manager and pest control operator.

What is the alternative integrated pest management
What is the alternative? -Integrated Pest Management

IPM Methods emphasize:

  • Pest Exclusion- block pest entry points, hiding places and passages;

  • Reduction of pest food and water sources- repair leaky plumbing, proper food storage and disposal; and

  • Control existing pests with low-risk control measures- boric acid, baits, and cleaning with borax.

    Least-toxic pesticides are used only as a last resort…

How is the pest getting into your building
How is the pest getting into your building?

  • Cracks around baseboards and under doors.

  • Holes in walls where plumbing or heating ducts come through.

  • Doors or windows left open or damaged screens.

  • Unscreened vents.

Find their path and block it
Find their path and block it!

  • Install screens on windows and doors.

  • Install door sweeps.

  • Caulk cracks and crevices in walls, floors, around baseboards and windows.

  • Seal holes around pipes.

Reduce pest food and water sources
Reduce Pest Food and Water Sources

Pests can find food in:

  • Trash cans

  • Appliances

  • Unsealed food on countertops

  • Dirty dishes

  • Pet bowls

Pests can get water from:

  • Leaky roofs

  • Leaky plumbing (toilet/sink)

  • Air conditioners

  • Sink and tub drains

  • Standing water in pet bowls/houseplants

Take home message pest control shared responsibility
Take Home MessagePest Control = Shared Responsibility

Effective pest control requires a partnership between the building owner/property manager, the tenant, maintenance staff and the pest control operator.

Review questions
Review Questions

  • There are seven steps to a healthier home- name three of them.

  • True or False Cockroaches can make asthma and allergies worse?

  • Name two health effects or symptoms of pesticide exposure.

  • What are three methods of blocking pest entry points to the home?

  • Name three places in the home pests can find food or water.

  • True or False IPM advocates the use of pesticides prior to blocking pest entry points and reducing food and water sources in the home.



-What they are

-What they eat

-Where they live

-Prevention and control

What is a cockroach
What is a Cockroach

  • Lives in areas where humans provide food and water

  • Active at night (If you see cockroaches during the day, the infestation is serious)

  • Many eggs in each egg case

  • Nymphs look like small version of adults

German cockroach
German Cockroach

  • Medium size (3/4''), bronze, with “racing stripes” behind the head

  • Found everywhere, but likes warmth, moisture, and darkness

  • Reproduces quickly

  • Mother carries eggs to term even if she is dead

  • Eats almost anything

Signs of cockroaches
Signs of Cockroaches

  • Live cockroaches

  • Dead cockroaches

  • Frass

  • Egg Cases

Where cockroaches live
Where cockroaches live

  • Anywhere in a building

  • Prefer spots near water but also need food and warmth

  • In cracks and crevices where their bodies touch surfaces above and below

What cockroaches eat
What cockroaches eat

  • Crumbs

  • Grease

  • Trash

  • Cardboard glue

  • Just about anything

Where cockroaches find water
Where cockroaches find water

  • Sinks

  • Counters

  • Floors

  • Pet bowls

  • Leaky pipes

  • Refrigerator drips

  • AC units

  • Shower stalls

What s the problems here
What’s the problems here?

-How would you fix it?

Ipm for cockroaches
IPM for Cockroaches

  • Inspect:

    • What kind?

    • How many?

    • Where are they living?

  • Prevention and Control

    • Sanitation

    • Exclusion

    • Least toxic pesticides


  • Where are they hiding?

    • Look for evidence where cockroaches would find food, water, or a hiding spot: up, down, behind, and under.

  • Monitor

    • By placing sticky traps near areas where cockroaches might travel—at corners and near warmth, food, and water.

    • Traps help find cockroaches when and where people can’t.

Prevention and control sanitation
Prevention and Control -Sanitation

  • Eliminate hiding spots, food, and water available at night by

    • Reducing clutter

    • Throwing away dead cockroaches

    • Cleaning frass and areas where there were cockroaches with soap and water

    • Cleaning with Borax (washing floors in kitchen/bathroom)

Prevention and control exclusion
Prevention and Control-Exclusion

  • Seal or fix cracks, peeled wallpaper, or holes that cockroaches could get through with:

    • Screens on windows and doors

    • Door sweeps

    • Silicone caulk

    • Copper mesh

Prevention and control least toxic pesticides
Prevention and Control-Least Toxic Pesticides

-Exclusion and Sanitation first!

-Maintenance staff and residents should never spray pesticides!!

  • Bait Stations (roach motels)

    • The bait needs to be the only food in the area—sanitation first!

    • Won’t work if contaminated by strong- smelling cleaners or other chemicals, pesticide sprays or foggers, or nicotine from cigarette smoke.

Prevention and control least toxic pesticides1
Prevention and Control -Least Toxic Pesticides

  • Insecticidal Dusts-Boric Acid

    • Effective if used correctly.

    • Light dusting instead of piles.

    • Use in walls before fixing them.

    • Under and behind cabinets at turnover or when making large repairs…but clean first!

      Because dust can become airborne Respirators must be worn when applying and Ventilation Systems should be turned off!

Prevention and control insecticidal dusts
Prevention and Control-Insecticidal Dusts

Incorrect use of insecticidal dust

Review questions1
Review Questions

  • True or False cockroaches are most active during the night.

  • What are two signs that a home is infested with cockroaches?

  • Name three places in the home where cockroaches can find water.

  • What tool is used to monitor for cockroaches in a home?

  • Name two ways to eliminate cockroach hiding spots and/or food and waters sources in the home.

Bed bugs

Bed Bugs

-What they are

-What they eat

-Where they live

-Prevention and Control

What is a bed bug
What is a Bed Bug

  • A blood-sucking insect

  • Most active at night

  • Usually feeds at night

  • Bed bugs do not transmit disease, but they

    • cause secondary infections after people scratch their bed bug bites; and

    • result in stress, loss of work, loss of sleep, and financial burden.

Adult bed bug feeding on human

Bed bug behavior
Bed Bug Behavior

  • Hide in cracks and crevices, often in groups.

  • Hitchhike on bags, furniture, wires, or pipes.

  • Cannot fly, jump, or burrow into skin…they crawl.

Signs of bed bugs
Signs of Bed Bugs

  • Bites

  • Blood spots

  • Shed skins

  • Dead bed bugs

  • Live bed bugs

Bed bugs and fecal spots.

Adult bed bug and droppings on mattress.

Signs of bed bugs1
Signs of Bed Bugs

Shed skins

Bed bug signs on a mattress seam

Where do bed bugs live
Where do bed bugs live?

  • In the building

  • In any crack or crevice where a credit card edge could fit

  • In anything near where people rest

  • Beds, sofas, bedside tables, recliners, picture frames…

How do bed bugs spread
How do bed bugs spread?

  • Through walls along wires and pipes

  • On anything coming from an infested unit:

    • Furniture

    • Backpacks

    • Laundry

Inspection is key
Inspection is key

  • A thorough inspection is important to determine how widespread the infestation is.

  • Inspection for bed bugs starts in the place where people sleep and moves out from there to other parts of the room

    • Mattress

    • Box Spring

    • Bed Frame/Head Board

    • Other furniture/storage areas

  • Bed bugs may turn up in unexpected places in moderate and large infestations (desks, nightstands, picture frames, etc…)

Bed bug control
Bed bug control

If residents find bed bugs they should:

  • Report the problem

  • Not throw the mattress out—cover it

  • Not spray

  • Prevent carrying the bed bugs to other places

  • Prepare the unit for control measures

Bed bug control resident s role
Bed bug control -Resident’s Role

Residents can:

  • Bag and remove all bedding, clothing, and other soft washable items from the infested area in plastic bags.

  • Wash and dry sheets, blankets, clothing, etc…on hot setting.

  • Isolate the cleaned items until bed bugs are gone.

  • Wash headboard and bed frame and other infested furniture with hot water and soap/vinegar.

  • Use a mattress encasement.

Bed bug control mattress encasement
Bed bug control -Mattress encasement

  • Traps live bed bugs inside.

  • Zip, seal, and check for rips.

  • Leave it on for 1-1/2 years (don’t let it rip).

Bed bug control1
Bed bug control

  • Residents should never spray or use foggers or bombs

  • Sprays cause the bugs to scatter- making them harder to control

Bed bug control pest control operator s role
Bed Bug Control -Pest Control Operator’s Role

PCO may:

  • Inspect units (infested and adjacent units)

  • Take apart furniture

  • Put infested items in sealed plastic bags or discard heavily infested items

  • Use

    • A Hepa vacuum-to remove bed bugs and debris

    • Heat or steam- to kill bugs

  • Return in three weeks for follow up inspections

Bed bug control maintenance staff s role
Bed bug control-Maintenance Staff’s Role

  • Empty dumpsters weekly

  • Damage furniture left out for the trash so it can’t be reused

  • Inspect the laundry room weekly

  • Be very cautious when working in units—never set items on or under beds, recliners, or sofas

  • Eliminate bed bug hiding spots

    • Fix peeling wallpaper and paint

    • Caulk or seal cracks and crevices around the room and on furniture

    • Seal floors or the spaces between floor boards and tiles

Bed bug control manager s role
Bed bug control -Manager’s Role

  • Maintain building free of pest harborage (hiding) places

  • Communicate with the Pest Control Operator and residents

  • Notify and assist residents in preparing for the Pest Control Operator visit

  • Ensure all units which are infested (as well as adjacent units) are inspected and IPM strategies are employed by the Pest Control Operator

Bed bug prevention
Bed bug prevention

  • Launder clothing/bedding frequently

  • Inspect donated/used furniture and clothing carefully and wash thoroughly

  • Resident education

    • Stress to residents that bedbugs are Not a sign of poor hygiene

    • Encourage residents to come forward immediately at first signs of infestation

Review questions2
Review Questions

  • True or False bed bugs are found only in beds.

  • How do bed bugs get into a multi-family building?

  • True or False bed bugs can only crawl.

  • Once a unit is infested with bed bugs what are three ways residents can assist in controlling them?

  • True or False foggers or bug bombs are effective in controlling bed bugs.

  • Name two ways a manager can help control bed bugs in a multi-family building.

Integrated pest management cockroaches

For more information on low-risk pest control or IPM please contact:

Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles at 213-689-9170 or


Presentation was adapted from the National Center for Healthy Housing’s Integrated Pest Management for Multi-family Housing Course