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Group Territoriality, Dispersal and Population Persistence in an Endangered Species. Endangerment Loss of Required/Preferred Habitat Habitat Fragmentation Habitat Degradation Number of Territories Dispersal Distance Between Territories. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. Picoides borealis.

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group territoriality dispersal and population persistence in an endangered species
Group Territoriality, Dispersal and Population Persistence in an Endangered Species

Endangerment

  • Loss of Required/Preferred Habitat
  • Habitat Fragmentation
  • Habitat Degradation

Number of Territories

Dispersal Distance Between Territories

red cockaded woodpecker
Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

Picoides borealis

Endangered 1985

- USFWS

Group Territoriality

Cooperative Breeding

Male Helpers

red cockaded woodpecker1
Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

Excavate Nesting Cavity

80+ Year-Old Pine, Heartwood

Endemic

Mature Pine Forests, Southeast

extinction causes
Extinction: Causes
  • Demographic Stochasticity

Among-Individual Variation

2. Environmental Stochasticity

Among-Generation Variation

3. Catastrophe

4. Inadequate Genetic Variation

avoid extinction viable population
Avoid Extinction: Viable Population

Commonly Large Enough to Withstand Demographic and Environmental Stochasticity

Catastrophe Difficult to Plan

Red-cockaded Woodpecker

USFWS: Large Enough to Avoid Loss Alleles Thru Genetic Drift

red cockaded woodpecker2
Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

Recovery Plan

  • Preserve Breeding Habitat and Establish New Populations
  • Maintain Viable Local Populations

Challenges

  • Habitat Loss (Fewer Territories)
  • Fragmentation (Greater Dispersal Distance)
red cockaded woodpecker3
Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

Letcher, Priddy, Walters & Crowder (1998)

Biol. Conservation 86:1 – 14.

  • Between-Sex Behavioral Differences in Dispersal
  • Territory Availability
  • Spatial Aggregation of Territories

“Clumped”  Reduced Dispersal Distance

letcher priddy walters crowder 1998 biol conservation 86 1 14
Letcher, Priddy, Walters & Crowder (1998)Biol. Conservation 86:1 – 14.

Territories “fixed” by availability of old trees

Breeding pair and non-breeding helpers

Competition for breeding status/territory

Female fledglings disperse, long distance

Male fledglings remain as helpers

Breed on natal territory

Disperse, short distance

letcher priddy walters crowder 1998 biol conservation 86 1 141
Letcher, Priddy, Walters & Crowder (1998)Biol. Conservation 86:1 – 14.

J. Walters: 25 yrs.; behavior and life histories

> 200 groups in North Carolina

> 2000 individuals

Data to parameterize demography/conservation model

Territory number (habitat loss)

Spatial pattern (dispersal distances)

letcher priddy walters crowder 1998 biol conservation 86 1 145
Letcher, Priddy, Walters & Crowder (1998)Biol. Conservation 86:1 – 14.

Population Persistence

Clutch size (obvious)

Female Dispersal (Long Distance)

Avoid Mortality, Find Breeding Opportunity

Number of Territories

Male Dispersal (Short Distance)

Find/Compete Breeding Opportunity

Spatial Aggregation of Territories