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Chapter 26.1. World War 1 The Great War Begins. Europe on the Brink of War. In 1914 Europe was on the brink of war. These tensions were the result of four factors: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism. Europe on the Brink of War. Militarism

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chapter 26 1

Chapter 26.1

World War 1

The Great War Begins

europe on the brink of war
Europe on the Brink of War

In 1914 Europe was on the brink of war. These tensions were the result of four factors: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism

europe on the brink of war1
Europe on the Brink of War
  • Militarism
    • Most European countries had grown their military in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s to protect their overseas colonies from other nations.
    • Since most European countries had large armies it made them nervous of one another
  • Alliances
    • So they formed alliances with one another to ease their fears of being attacked.
    • Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Italy
    • Triple Entente- Great Britain, France, and Russia
europe on the brink of war2
Europe on the Brink of War
  • Imperialism
    • European countries were on the quest to build empires which created rivalries between them.
    • Each wanted to be the largest empire
  • Nationalism
    • Each person in Europe had a strong devotion to their country, national group, or culture.
    • New countries were formed because of it
    • The most visible power struggle was in the Balkan Peninsula
      • Many ethnic groups wanted to break away from the Ottoman Empire that had ruled them for hundred of years
      • Serbia was an independent state and wanted to expand it’s borders because many Serbs lived throughout the Balkan Peninsula.
      • Austria-Hungary wanted to prevent this from happening
war breaks out
War Breaks Out

Austria-Hungary ruled in Bosnia were many Serbs lived and had hoped to be united with Serbia

Franz-Ferdinand the arch duke of Austria-Hungary decided to visit Bosnia on June 28 1914.

Serbian GavriloPrincip member of Black Hand- Serbian terrorist group opened fire and killed Franz-Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

war breaks out1
War Breaks Out
  • The Impact
    • Once Austria-Hungary found out a serb killed their archduke they declare war on Serbia on July 28th 1914
    • Russia prepared to fulfill their alliance with Serbia and protect them.
    • Germany saw Russia’s against as a an act of war against Austria-Hungary so they fulfilled their alliance with Austria-Hungary and declared was on Russia and on Russia’s allies France
war breaks out2
War Breaks Out
  • Fighting Begins
    • Germany faced war on the East from Russia and West on France
    • Germany began with a quick strike on Belgium even though it was a neutral state it was between Germany and France
    • This led Great Britain to declare war on Germany
    • The two sides were all now in the war
      • Central Power- Austria-Hungary and Germany
      • Allied Powers- GB, France, Russia, and Serbia
fighting in 1914
Fighting in 1914
  • Early Battles
    • In August 1914 Germany fought GB and France in the Battle of the Frontier and Germany won
    • Russia attacked Germany in the East in the Battle of Tannenberg and the Germans crushed the Russian invasion
    • However it allowed the French some relief from fighting and regroup to begin their attack on Germany
fighting in 19141
Fighting in 1914
  • Trench Warfare Begins
    • GB and France succeeded in pushing the Germans back
    • German dug trenches and waited for the Allied forces to come and were able to keep them out because of the trenches
    • GB and France dug their own trench
    • Even though many battles were fought their position did not change because of their trenches.
    • Their was a deadlock in the region and it became known was the Western Front.
chapter 26 2

Chapter 26.2

A New Kind of War

poison from the sky
Poison From The Sky

Turn to page 783

the world war i battlefield
The World War I Battlefield

The trenches stretched hundred of miles across Western Europe and the use of poison gas were a result of the deadlock due to the trenches

the world war 1 battlefield
The World War 1 Battlefield
  • Trench Warfare
    • Life in the trenches were terrible
    • Rain produced muddy unsanitary life style
    • Hard to remove dead bodies
    • Full of lice, rats, and many other creatures
    • Many times the soldiers were ordered “over the top” which meant to leave their trenches and run to the opposing trenches. This meant running across “ no man’s land” between the two… many men died there.
world war 1 battlefield
World War 1 Battlefield
  • New Weapons
    • Neither side was able to advance with the type of war they were fighting, trench warfare.
    • Poison gas was the new weapon
    • Rapid fire machine
      • It chocked, burned, and blinded the victims
      • It killed thousands of men
      • It was very unperdictable, the winds could change and it could blow back on the side that had dropped it
      • Both side developed gas masks to protect themselves
    • High explosive shells with enormous destructive power
world war 1 battlefield1
World War 1 Battlefield
  • Tanks and Aircraft
    • Tanks were engineered by the British and could cross large amounts of land and were significant at the end of the war
    • Aircraft were useful from the beginning
    • First it was used to see the enemies positions
    • Later they attached machine guns and began air warfare
    • However these advances did not help on the battlefield. The trench warfare kept the war in a deadlock
war on the home front
War on the Home Front

These countries realized that to win this new type of war they need to enact total war which would use all of societies resources. Governments began to take strong control of their citizens

war on the home front1
War on the Home Front
  • Government Actions
    • Many of the factors began to produce military resources
    • Countries began to censor newspaper and the truth out the war and causalities may cause people to be against the war
    • Government created propaganda to make the enemy look brutal and the war essential
war on the home front2
War on the Home Front
  • Women and The War
    • Most the men were at war so many of the women went to work
    • Many of the women worked in the factories to produce goods for the war
    • Many were nurses and helped the wounded in the war
    • This changed help begin the view of women in society and the workforce
battles on the western front
Battles on the Western Front
  • In 1915 many Allies had died and the war was looking bleak for the allied forces
  • The Italian Front
    • The Italians joined the Allied Powers
    • Italy sent troops to the Austria-Hungary Italian borders
battles on the western front1
Battles on the Western Front
  • The Battle of Verdun
    • February-December 1916
    • The fortress of Verdun was a strong hold and important to the French since the Roman times.
    • Germans thought the French would do whatever it take to defend Verdun
    • They wanted to kill as many French soldiers as possible
    • By the end of the campaign 40,000 French had died as did Germans
    • The stalemate continued and weakened both sides
battles on the western front2
Battles on the Western Front
  • The Battle of the Somme
    • June – December 1916
    • British launch an attack on the German to pull them away from Verdun
    • They attacked on the Somme Rive in France
    • By the end 60,000 British had died
    • No major breakthroughs
    • Both side lost many men and were weakened even more
battles on the western front3
Battles on the Western Front
  • The Third Battle of Ypres
    • 1917 continued to go badly for the Allied Powers
    • The British launched the Third attack on Ypres on the German but still no major break through
    • By the end of 1917 the front lines were virtually unchanged
war around the world
War around the World

Thirty nations officially took sides in WWI moving it from a war in Europe to an actual World War

war around the world1
War around the World
  • The Gallipoli Campaign
    • 1914 the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers
    • They controlled the Dardanelles which was part of water route between the black sea and the Mediterranean. The Allies used it to ship supplies to the Russians
    • In 1915 the Allies wanted to destroy the strong hold the Ottoman Empire had in the Dardanelles. Again this was a failure for the Allies and they lost 200,000 men
    • However, Ottoman Empire fell because it’s subject in the Arabian Peninsula rebelled and the British sent troops over (T.E. Lawrence) to help the rebellion
war around the world2
War around the World
  • The Armenian Massacre
    • When the Gallipoli campaign went on a different conflict arouse in the Ottoman Empire
    • Russia launched an attack in the Caucasus mountains where many Armenian’s lived in the Ottoman Empire
    • Ottoman Empire accused the Armenians of helping the Russians and they began forcibly removing and killing the Armenians in the area
    • Many accused the Ottoman Empire of genocide- the deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group
war around the world3
War around the World
  • Other Fighting
    • Other battles were fought across the world in Asia and Africa
    • Japan declared war on Germany in 1914
    • They captured German colonies in China and the Pacific
    • British and French troops attacked colonies in Africa
    • Allied colonies scattered across the world contributed in fighting and supplying the Allied Powers
    • Many fought in hopes that they would gain their independence, they soon found out these hopes were in vain.


Revolution in Russia

russia and world war i
Russia and World War I
  • The Years Before the War
    • Czar Nicholas II promised reform after the revolution of 1905 but little change came
    • Marxist group known as the Bolsheviks wanted to change Russia through revolution and with their leader Vladimir Lenin
    • They used Marxist ideas but varied because they wanted to eventually control Russia
    • In 1914 the economics crisis was at it worst and Czar Nicholas thought the war would help unite the people under his leadership
russia and world war i1
Russia and World War I
  • Russia in World War I
    • The war did help unite many rushed to join the military, altogether they had 6 million soldiers
    • Russia was not prepared for the expensive and supply of their military
    • The men had outdated weapons and the leaders were not well trained
    • Millions of Russians were killed in the early battles of WWI
russia and world war i2
Russia and World War I
  • Conditions Grow Worse
    • Czar Nicholas II took command of the Russian army in 1915
    • He knew little of war strategy or commanding an army
    • With Nicholas II in charge Russia place in the war grew worse
    • The Central Powers were able to stop a major Russian offensives, which left the Russian feeling defeated and hopeless
    • In Russia the people were starving
    • Czarina Alexandra was left in charge and began to take advice from Grigory Rasputin, which made the people dislike the monarchy even more
the russian revolution
The Russian Revolution
  • Revolution Begins
    • In 1916 the people began to revolt and the soldiers and police sympathized
    • Czar Nicholas the II commanded the Duma (Russian legislature) to disband and they refused
    • On March 15th 1916 he was forced to abdicate the throne
    • The revolution that led to the end of the monarch is known as the February Revolution
the russian revolution1
The Russian Revolution
  • The Provisional Government
    • The Duma place Aleksandr Kerensky in charge
    • Most of the people disliked him and his continuation in the war
    • People were more considered with their starving families and poor living conditions
    • The Bolsheviks wanted a fundamental change in gov’t based off of Marxist ideals
    • Vladimir Lenin who had been exiled from Russia for his communist ideals was helped back into the country by Germany who hope he would stir up unrest in the country
the russian revolution2
The Russian Revolution
  • The Bolshevik Revolution
    • Mid-1917 Kerensky lead the Russian army in a final offensive attack against the Central Power and failed miserably
    • Men in the army began to revolt against their officersand people at home were just as unhappy
    • In November 1917 the Bolshevik led a revolution to take over the government and won easily
    • Lenin was in charge and implemented a communist gov’t and made owning private land illegal and distrusted the land in Russia to the people
after the revolution
After The Revolution

Lenin wanted to end the war with Germany and he made an agreement which caused Russia to loose a large chunk of it’s empire

after the revolution1
After the Revolution
  • Civil War
    • Many were unhappy with the agreement the Bolsheviks made with the Germans
    • The wealthy, political opponents, and many military leaders opposed the Bolsheviks and created the White army to fight the Red army and take back Russia.
    • The White army received outside helped and the war continued on until 1920 when the Bolsheviks won
    • Many Russian lives were lost
after the revolution2
After the Revolution
  • New Economic Policy
    • Many peasant suffered through the civil war and Russia was at the end of economic destruction
    • Lenin enacted the New Economic Policy in 1921 which allowed some capitalist activities.
    • People were allowed to sell their food for a profit
  • The Soviet Union
    • 1922 Russian economy began to improve
    • They were reunited with lands that they had lost in 1917
    • The new country was call The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic- aka Soviet Union
    • Communist leadership dominated the government
    • Lenin died in 1924 without a clear successor which lead to a struggle of control of the Soviet Union
chapter 26 4

Chapter 26.4

The war ends

the united states
The United States
  • American Neutrality
    • American stayed neutral in the early years of the war
    • Many people openly supported the allies
    • President Woodrow Wilson did not want to get involved in a conflict across the Atlantic
  • Trouble on the Seas
    • Germany attack a civilian ship The Lusitania and killed 1,200 people and 120 US citizens
    • Germany would an ship leaving a British port, even civilian boats because GB would use civilian boats to transport supplies to the troops
    • they sunk 2 more ships killing more US citizens
    • America was angry and Germany agreed to their policy of unrestricted submarine warfare because they fear US entry into the war
    • Germany realized they had to defeat the British Navy to win the war so they went back on their agreement with the US
the us enters the war
The US Enters the War
  • The Zimmermann Notes
    • The Zimmermann Notes provided the last push the US needed to enter the war
    • The note was between German diplomat Arthur Zimmermann and Mexico in which Germany proposed Mexico attack the US
    • He hoped the a war with Mexico and the US would keep the US out of the war in Europe
    • April 1917 the US entered the war on the side of the Allied Powers
the end of fighting
The End of Fighting
  • A New German Offensive
    • Germany knew that the US entering the war would drastically change the chances of the Allies winning so they needed to weaken the Allies before US had time to send troops over
    • With Russia out of the war Germany focused on the west with France and GB
    • Germany made great advances on this campaign and came within 40 miles of the capital of France, Paris.
    • They lost 800,000 men in this campaign
    • American arrived in France by the end of June 1918 and discouraged the Germans from advancing further
the end of fighting1
The End of Fighting
  • German Collapse
    • Once the Americans entered the Allies began winning and make great advances pushing Germany out of France
    • Many Germans gave up without a fight knowing that they were now fighting a loosing battle
    • In October 1918 the Allies broke through the heavily fortified Hindenburg Line of Germans.
    • German leaders approached the Allies seeking an armistice- a truce
    • November 11th 1918 peace terms were agreed upon and the War ended
a difficult peace
A Difficult Peace
  • Differing Allied Goals
    • Even though war was easily stopped on the battle fields the countries leaders still had to come to a formal peace agreement
    • Woodrow Wilson proposed his 14 points for world peace
      • Reduction of weapons
      • The rights of all people to choose their own gov’t
      • Creating an organization in which the world’s nations would join together to protect each other aggressors
      • Most of the Allie countries disagreed
    • France wanted to punish Germany and make them pay for the damage they caused
    • GB wanted to punish Germany but he didn’t want to weaken them so much that they couldn’t help stop Russia from spreading communism
    • Italy wanted to gain more land for their nations but were very much ignored by the other leaders
a difficult peace1
A Difficult Peace
  • The Treaty of Versailles
      • Germany was forced to pay an enormous amount of money to the war’s victims
      • Germany was forced to take full responsibility for the war
      • Germany had to limit the size of it’s military
      • Germany had to return conquered land to France and Russia
      • Poland was formed
      • Germany’s colonies around the world were given to various countries around the world
    • Germany was humiliated at the terms of the treaty but had no other choice to sign
    • The Treaty crushed the German economy and created bitterness that would effect German politics and WWII
    • The Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations
      • However, the US gov’t did not ratify the treaty and enter into the League of Nations
a difficult peace2
A Difficult Peace
  • Other Treaties
    • Treaties were made with other Central Power countries
    • Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire was spilt up into Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Turkey.
    • German territories in Africa and the Pacific Ocean were given to other countries to control
    • In the Middle East former Ottoman lands were turned into mandates- territories to be ruled by European powers. They were suppose to rule them until they could rule themselves but really they just became colonies
    • Syria and Lebanon became French mandates
    • Palestine and Iraq became British mandates
    • 1917 Britain issued the Balfour Declaration which favored est a Jewish state in Palestine
    • British created Transjordan from the Palestine Mandate and named Abdullah the first ruler
the cost of the war
The Cost of the War
  • Human Cost
    • WWI was one of the most devastating conflicts the world has ever seen
    • 9 million soldiers died and 7 million civilians
    • Almost entire generation of men died or were wounded in war
    • In the spring of 1918 influenza swept across the entire globe
    • It was able to spread because of the crowded military conditions and then the men returning home
    • 50 million died worldwide
the cost of war
The Cost of War
  • Economic Costs
    • Most of the fighting happened in France, Belgium, and Russia and it ruined farmland and their economies
    • The war cost Europe it’s place as a dominate power
    • US and Japan prospered in Europe's decline
  • Political Changes
    • WWI caused widespread political unheaval
    • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottoman Empire were overthrown
    • This would change the world in the years to come
the cost of war1
The Cost of War
  • Unrest in Colonies
    • The colonist who helped fight in the war heard the Allied leaders speak of democracy and freedom and believed they would get their freedom as well
    • They soon found out that they would not get their freedom and that the Allies just spilt up the Central Powers colonies amongst themselves