Ancient Greece Overview. Date: 1/5/ 2012 Daily Question: Is Athens or Sparta a more advanced civilization? Warm-up Question: GO TO PAGE 332-333 in the textbook Fill out the timeline given to you when you walked in. The Story of Ancient Greece. Think about as you read
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Ancient GreeceOverview Date: 1/5/2012 Daily Question: Is Athens or Sparta a more advanced civilization? Warm-up Question: GO TO PAGE 332-333 in the textbook Fill out the timeline given to you when you walked in.
The Story of Ancient Greece • Think about as you read • How did geography influence settlement and the way of life in Ancient Greece? • What did the people of ancient Greece give the world?
Questions • When did a civilization emerge in Ancient Greece? • Where did civilizations develop in Greece? • Besides farming, how did many ancient Greeks earn a living?
Maps of Ancient Greece • World Map (p. 274) • Label the seven continents and five oceans • Shade in Greece on the map • Label Greece on the map • Country Map (p. 272) • Shade the land one color (preferably green) • Shade the water another color (preferably blue)
Questions • How did the Minoans spread civilization? • Who were the Mycenaeans? What did they learn from the Minoans? • What are the Iliad and the Odyssey?
Questions • How were the Greek city-states first ruled? • Why did many Greeks resent rule by aristocrats? • How did tyrants come to power in some city-states?
Vocabulary Democracy: a form of government by the whole population. Citizens: an inhabitant of a particular town or city. Golden Age: a period of peace and prosperity. Peninsula: a body of land with water on almost all sides. Colonies: country of land under the control of another country.
Timeline(textbook pp. 332-333) • Fill in the timeline of Ancient Greece • By 800 B.C.E. – Oligarchies replace monarchies as a form of government in most Greek city-states. • By mid-600s B.C.E. – Tyrannies replace oligarchies as the main form of government in most Greek city-states. • About 500 B.C.E. – Greek city-states establish colonies and conduct trade in the wider Mediterranean region. • By 500 B.C.E. – Democracy develops in Athens and gives shared ruling power to all citizens. • 499-479 B.C.E. – The Persian wars end with Greek victory helped by the alliance between Athens and Sparta. • 479-431 B.C.E. – The Golden Age of Athens makes the city-state the artistic and cultural center of Greece. • 431 B.C.E. – Pericles praises the greatness of Athens in his funeral oration honoring Athenian soldiers killed in the Peloponnesian War. • 431-404 B.C.E. – The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, each with its own allies, weakens the Greek city-states. • About 400 B.C.E. – The historian Thucydides writes about the history of the Peloponnesian War. • 399 B.C.E. – A jury finds the philosopher Socrates guilty and sentences him to death. • 334-323 B.C.E. – Alexander the Great builds a vast empire and spreads Greek culture to Asia and Africa. • About 300 B.C.E. – The mathematician Euclid writes The Elements, a collection of 13 books about geometry
Homework Read the articles and fill in the Socratic Seminar Worksheets Extra Credit: Draw your own MAP of Ancient Greece (it can be a world map or a country map) Individual Artifacts Project due WEDNESDAY!
Exit Ticket What is one thing you heard about Ancient Greece today that you want to know more about? Any questions you have?
Ancient GreeceAthens vs. Sparta Date: January 6th, 2012 or 1/5/2012 Daily Question: Is Athens or Sparta a more advanced civilization? Why? Warm-up Question: What is the order of the forms of government in Ancient Greece? List in order with the years! [Forms of government: democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, tyranny) *Turn in your individual artifact project (all seven artifacts) to the box in the back of the room.
BrainPOP Ancient Greece – Athens and Sparta As you watch, take notes on your sheet to help you in the debate.
Greek city-states Geography affected how settlements developed in ancient Greece. Isolated communities, separated from each other by steep mountains, grew in diverse ways. The Greeks didn’t view themselves as one country, but rather identified with their hometown that they called their “city.” The Greeks were proud of where they came from. Each city had its own laws, its own army, and its own form of money. For this reason, Greek cities are called city-states. Each individual city-state had their own form of government.
Monarchy From about 200 to 800 B.C.E., a monarch, or king, ruled most Greek city-states. In a monarchy, the governing power is in the hands of one person, usually a king. Greek settlements did not allow queens to govern. At first, kings were selected by the people. Then, kings began to pass down power to their oldest son. The king had the power to make the laws and act as judge. The king conducted religious ceremonies. The king led the army and used its force to punish people who disobeyed the laws. Kings had councils of aristocrats to advise them. The aristocrats were wealthy men who had inherited large pieces of land. At first, they had little actual power, but during wars the king was dependant on them to provide soldiers with horses and armor. The aristocrats soon realized they were stronger than the king, so they wanted to share the power.
Oligarchy Eventually the aristocrats overthrew the monarchy and took power for themselves. By 800 B.C.E. Greek city-states were no longer ruled by kings. Between 800 and 650 B.C.E.. Most Greek city-states were ruled by a small group of wealthy men. These men were called “oligarchs,” from the Greek word that means “few.” In an oligarchy, the ruling power is in the hands of few people. Most Greek oligarchs were aristocrats, but few were wealthy merchants. The oligarchs lived very comfortable lives of games, hunting and socializing. Over time, many oligarchs ignored the needs of the majority of the people in favor of making the wealthy more rich. Under the oligarchies, the rich became richer and the poor became poorer.
Tyranny Eventually the poor rebelled against the oligarchs by supporting other leaders who promised to improve their lives. These leaders were usually in the army and used their soldiers to take power. During the mid-600s B.C.E., people turned to leaders who promised change for the majority by overthrowing the power of the oligarchies. These men are called tyrants (or dictators). In a tyranny, the ruling power is in the hands of one person who is not the lawful king. There are no legal limits to the power of tyrant because there are no laws governing his rule. A tyrant doesn’t pass down power to his son. Many tyrants were popular among the people for promising more rights. Tyrants were believed to be good rulers because they made changes that improved the lives of the poor. However, there were a few cruel tyrants, which led to tyrants losing power.
Democracy Around 500 B.C.E., the people in Athens were the first to try governing themselves. They developed a form of government called democracy, or rule by the people.” In a democracy, all citizens share in the ruling power. Ancient Greek democracy than our representative democracy because it is a DIRECT democracy. Every citizens of Athens is allowed to vote on every issue. The city had an assembly, or lawmaking group. Any free man could speak in the assembly and vote on a new law or propose a law or war. Free men also ran the city’s day to day business. However, people didn’t always agree and sometimes decisions were made and then reversed. The Greeks were the first to create democracy as a form of government, which is the predominant government of the industrialized world.
Vocabulary Monarchy: the governing power is in the hands of one person, usually a king. Oligarchy: the ruling power is in the hands of few people. Tyranny: the ruling power is in the hands of one person who is not the lawful king. Democracy: all citizens share in the ruling power.
Research Athens v. Sparta READ THROUGH THE DEBATE GUIDELINES Each of you will either be researching Athens or Sparta for a DEBATE You will each be given an article to read with a partner or by yourself. You will take notes on what you have learned in order to argue your side for the debate Debate Questions: Was the city of Athens OR the city of Sparta more important to the development Ancient Greece? Did the city of Athens OR the city of Sparta contribute more to the world? Which city was the “most advanced” or “greatest”? Be sure to use specific examples and details of the contributions and inventions of each city.
Athens v. Sparta Even though many city-states shared things in common such as language and religious beliefs, the physical separation led to important differences between the city-states. Athens and Sparta are the most important of the Greek city-states, but as you will find out they have different forms of government and way of life. We will hold debate to compare and contras the important features of these two city-states.
Prepping for the debate • As a group, read about Ancient Athens or Sparta. • While you read, underline the contributions or inventions of the city. • After reading, discuss the debate question with a partner and take at least 3 notes on the contributions of your city. • After taking notes, discuss with your entire team to come up with the strongest argument to the debate question. • Decide as a group who will raise their hand to make each point during the debate.
Rules for the Debate • You will have time to prepare your side’s argument for the debate. • You should take notes during your preparation in order to know what you want to say during the debate. • During the debate, you should take notes while BOTH sides talk. • Only ONE person can speak at a time. • Raise your hand if you would like to be called on to speak. • Every person must speak (make a point) during the debate. • If you make a legitimate (real/true/factual) point during the debate, then your side will get a point. • The team that makes the better argument during the debate (aka has the most points) will receive extra credit. You can’t receive participation credit OR extra credit if you don’t speak in the debate.
DEBATE • Athens • Points = • Sparta • Points =
Homework • Compare and contrast essay on Athens and Sparta (1-2 full pages) • The compare and contrast essay should have: • An introduction to Ancient Greece that concludes in a thesis statement • Thesis: Athens and Sparta both… however, Athens has… and Sparta has… • A paragraph about a similarity between Athens and Sparta • A paragraph about a difference between Athens and Sparta (Athens) • A paragraph about a difference between Athens and Sparta (Sparta) • READ articles and fill out ‘open-ended questions for Socratic Seminar’ sheet. • DUE ON MONDAY!
Ancient GreecePhilosophy Date: January 9th2012, 1/9/2012 Daily Question: How does philosophy change the way people (Ancient Greeks) look at the world? Warm-up Question: “Life contains but two tragedies. One is not to get your heart’s desire; the other is to get it.” – Socrates In your own words, what is Socrates saying about life?
Philosophy How did the world begin? What is the right way for people to live? Most ancient people thought that only the gods could answer such questions. But many Greeks thought differently. They believed people themselves could answer such questions through reason. They believed people could use their minds to answer questions about the world and human beings. The Greeks called people who searched for such answers philosophers, or “lovers of knowledge.” Greek philosophers made important contributions to the growth of modern science and philosophy.
Thales One of the earliest Greek philosophers was Thales. He lived in Ionia about 600 B.C.E. Thales asked himself this question: “What is the world made of?” To find the answer, he carefully observed, or studied, the world around him. Thales answer was that the world was made entirely of water. His answer was wrong, but his method of finding the answer through careful observation was used by later scientists and philosophers.
Socrates Some philosophers were interested in ethics, or ideas about the right way to live. One of these philosophers was Socrates. Socrates was a teacher who lived in Athens. He taught that people must learn to think for themselves. Only through clear thinking could people discover the right way to live. Socrates taught his students to think clearly by asking them questions. When Socrates was not satisfied with the answer, he asked more questions. The method of teaching by asking questions became known as the Socratic Method. Socrates urged his students to question all their old beliefs. Some Athenians thought such teaching was dangerous.
Plato After Socrates death, his student Plato carried on his work. Plato was a great writer. His famous book is The Republic. It is still read today. In The Republic, Plato wrote down his ideas about government. Plato did not believe that democracy was the best kind of government. He did not believe that most people could make good decisions about government. Instead, Plato believed that a small group of wise men should run the government.
Aristotle The last great philosopher of Athens was Aristotle. He was a student of Plato. Aristotle was a brilliant man who explored all areas of learning. He wrote hundreds of books on science, government, philosophy, and other subjects. His books had a great influence, or effect, on later philosophers and scientists.
Vocabulary Reason – logic Philosophers – lover of knowledge, people who search for answers Observed – studied, seen/watched carefully over time Thales – philosopher who relied on observation to answer his questions about the world. Socrates – philosopher interested in ethics (right/wrong), who believed it was best to learn and teach through a method of questioning. Plato – student of Socrates; philosopher famous for writing The Republic about how the ideal government would be run by a group of wise men. Aristotle – student of Plato; great philosopher who wrote hundreds of books on science, government, philosophy, etc. Socratic Method – method of teaching by asking questions
Socratic Method The Socratic method of teaching is based on Socrates' theory that it is more important to enable students to think for themselves than to merely fill their heads with "right" answers. Therefore, he regularly engaged his pupils in dialogues by responding to their questions with questions, instead of answers. This process encourages independent thinking and close analysis. This is the goal of our Socratic seminars.
Socratic Seminar • “The unexamined life is not worth living.” – Socrates • DIALOGUE v. Debate • Purpose/goal: • To discuss the article you read for homework by asking questions of one another to come to a better understanding through conversation. • To observe the dynamic of the conversation.
Socratic Seminar Set-up Class is divided into two groups – inner circle and outer circle The inner circle will talk about the articles using the homework sheet they completed. The outer circle will observe the conversation by following one person and filling out the observation sheet. Then the people in the inner/outer circles will switch
Accountable Talk What to DO: What to SAY: “I agree with you, and want to add…” “I disagree with you. I think….” “That’s a good point! To add to that…” “This example proves that your point is right…” “The author clearly says on page…” “Could you clarify what you mean when you say…” “Could you please restate that?” “I am confused by…” “It may not say this directly in the text, but we can conclude that… because…” “What do you think of…” “I can make a text to [self, text, world] connection. It is…” • listen to each other attentively • lean towards the person talking • make eye contact • move desks so that they are facing each other • nod and/or take notes to show you are listening
Expectations for Participation When I evaluate your Socratic Seminar participation, I will ask myself the following questions. Did they…. Speak loudly and clearly?Cite reasons and evidence for their statements?Use the text to find support?Listen to others respectfully?Stick with the subject?Talk to each other, not just to the leader?Paraphrase accurately?Ask for help to clear up confusion?Support each other?Avoid hostile exchanges?Question others in a civil manner?Seem prepared? **You will receive a grade for your participation in Socratic Seminars.
Prepare Take the next 5 MINUTES to look over the article and your hw worksheet (open-ended questions) to think about what you would like to say during the Seminar. Remember you are all required to speak at least once in order to receive credit.
The Death of Socratesby Jacques Louis-David Socrates teaching methods made him controversial. Some Greeks accused Socrates of turning his students away from the gods. Socrates was put on trial. A jury found Socrates guilty. His penalty was death. In 399 B.C.E., Socrates drank a cup of poison and died.
Homework • Journal reflection that summarizes your thoughts after the discussion (be sure to reference other students specific ideas/comments)
Ancient GreeceMythology Date: January 10, 2012 or 1/10/2012 Daily Question: What does Greek Mythology tell us about the Ancient Greeks understanding of the world and society? Warm-up Question: How do you explain why things happen to you? Who is responsible for what happens to you on a daily basis? (Think religion, fate, etc.)
Greek Religion The ancient Greeks believed in multiple gods and goddesses (polytheistic). They thought that the gods and goddesses looked and often acted like humans, but did not get older or die. Every city-state honored a god or goddess, who was thought to give its people special protections (Athena = Athens). The Greeks believes that each god or goddess had power over a particular area of life. (Athena is the goddess of war and wisdom so a huge statue of her was placed in the Parthenon, which was built in her honor).
Parthenon Parthenon: in a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, which is dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena. It was constructed from 447-438 B.C.E. It is an example of classic Greek architecture in the Doric order/style. Acropolis: means “high city” in Greek, which refers to the top of the hill where new settlements were built in ancient times.
Temple of Delphi Another famous temple was in the city of Delphi. This temple was dedicated to the god Apollo. People would visit the temple to ask Apollo for advice. A priestess, called the oracle of Delphi, would answer their questions by going into a trance. The words spoken by the priestess were thought to come from Apollo. Oracle: a priest or priestess acting as a middle person through whom advice or prophecy from the gods was sought.
Mythology The Greeks told myths, or stories, about the gods. A myth is a traditional story that helps explain a culture’s beliefs. According to these stories, the home of the gods was Mount Olympus, a real mountain in Greece. Twelve of the gods and goddesses were particularly important and are often called the Olympian gods. The Olympian gods and goddesses were part of everyday life in ancient Greece. For example: before setting out on journeys by land or sea, the Greeks would ask for help. The Greeks dedicated their festivals and sporting events to their deities. Greek artists decorated temples with images of them. The gods and goddess were believed to be behind everything that was done and were relied upon to explain the happenings of everyday life.
Olympian Gods and Goddesses Zeus – ruler of the gods Hera – wife of Zeus; goddess of marriage Poseidon – brother of Zeus; god of the sea Hestia – sister of Zeus; goddess of the hearth (family fire) Demeter – sister of Zeus; goddess of agriculture Athena – daughter of Zeus; goddess of wisdom and war Apollo – son of Zeus; god of sun, poetry and music Artemis – daughter of Zeus; goddess of moon and hunting Hephaestus – son of Zeus; god of fire and metalwork Aphrodite – daughter of Zeus; goddess of love and beauty Hermes – son of Zeus; messenger of the gods and god of travel
Vocabulary Parthenon: in a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, which is dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena. It was constructed from 447-438 B.C.E. It is an example of classic Greek architecture in the Doric order/style. Acropolis: means “high city” in Greek, which refers to the top of the hill where new settlements were built in ancient times. Oracle: a priest or priestess acting as a middle person through whom advice or prophecy from the gods was sought. Myth: a traditional story that helps explain a culture’s beliefs.