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IS 553 Advanced Systems Development Practices. James Nowotarski 30 March 2004. Today’s Objectives. Understand what the course is about (i.e., course objectives) Understand how the course will achieve its objectives Get acquainted Level set:

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today s objectives
Today’s Objectives
  • Understand what the course is about (i.e., course objectives)
  • Understand how the course will achieve its objectives
  • Get acquainted
  • Level set:
    • What is a software development methodology/process
    • Why use a methodology/process
    • Who are the key players and products in the marketplace
    • What are the key vocabulary terms to understand
today s agenda
Today’s Agenda

Topic Duration

  • Questionnaire & Intros 20 minutes
  • Core Concepts 45 minutes

*** Break 10 minutes

  • Core Concepts (cont.) 30 minutes
  • Course Overview 30 minutes
  • SD Process: Why or why not? 30 minutes
  • Marketplace Snapshot 30 minutes
today s agenda1
Today’s Agenda

Topic Duration

  • Questionnaire & Intros 20 minutes
  • Core Concepts 45 minutes

*** Break 10 minutes

  • Core Concepts (cont.) 30 minutes
  • Course Overview 30 minutes
  • SD Process: Why or why not? 30 minutes
  • Marketplace Snapshot 30 minutes
core concepts
Core Concepts
  • Software Engineering
  • The establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to economically obtain software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines (Fritz Bauer, 1969)
  • Computer science discipline that covers not only the technical aspects of building software systems, but also management issues, such as directing programming teams, scheduling, and budgeting (webopedia.com)
core concepts1
People

Process

Technology

Core Concepts

The software engineering discipline consists of people, process, and technology components

core concepts2
IS 553Core Concepts

The focus of IS 553 is the process component of software engineering

People

Process

Technology

core concepts3
Core Concepts
  • Process
  • Sequence of steps performed for a given purpose
  • “A specific ordering of work activities across time and place with a beginning, an end, and clearly identified inputs and outputs” -- Tom Davenport
  • An overloaded term, can apply at multiple levels (macro, micro)
core concepts4
Core Concepts
  • method
  • Within the context of software engineering, a formalized approach or series of steps for performing some significant portion of software development
  • Methodology
  • A collection of methods based on a common philosophy that fit together in a framework called the systems development life cycle
  • -- Ken Orr
core concepts5
Core Concepts

In IS 553, we will use the terms method and Methodology interchangeably

  • method/Methodology
  • A systematic way of doing something
  • Typically consists of these key content pieces:
    • Processes (what)
    • Deliverables (what)
    • Techniques (how)
    • Roles (who)
    • Estimating guidelines (how long)
slide11
Example: Analysis phase

Key Question:

Deliverables

Functional requirements

Quality requirements

Data model

Process model

What does the system need to do?

Steps

Techniques

1. Gather requirements

2. Create data model

3. Create process model

Interviewing

Observation

Entity-relationship modeling

Normalization

Data flow modeling

slide12
Example: Implementation

Key Question:

Deliverables

Programs

Databases

Converted data

End user training

Operations processes

Does the system work?

Steps

Techniques

1. Build the programs

2. Build the databases

3. Test the system

4. Develop and conduct training

5. Convert the data

6. Migrate to production status

Code walkthroughs

White box testing

Stress testing

Parallel testing

core concepts6
Core Concepts
  • Broad categories of methods
  • Structured methods
  • Information engineering
  • Object-oriented methods
  • Lightweight/Agile methods
core concepts7
Core Concepts
  • Methods engineering
  • Developing and/or selecting and/or tailoring methodology for a particular business situation
  • “Configuring one-of-a-kind methodology from common building blocks” -- Gezinus Hidding, Loyola University
slide15
Planning

Analysis

Design

Implementation

Core Concepts

Systems development life cycle (SDLC)

  • A description of the phases of an information system

Example

core concepts8
Core Concepts
  • Life cycle model
  • The iteration and control strategy adopted by a systems development organization
  • Examples
    • Waterfall
    • Iterative/Evolutionary/Spiral
    • Incremental
slide17
Core Concepts

The waterfall model is the granddaddy of life cycle models

slide18
Version 1

A

D

I

Version 2

A

D

I

Version 3

A

D

I

Core Concepts

Iterative/Evolutionary/Spiral life cycle models advocate multiple “threads” through the SDLC phases

slide19
Version 1

A

D

I

Version 2

A

D

I

Version 3

A

D

I

Core Concepts

Incremental life cycle models advocate delivering the end product piecemeal

core concepts9
Core Concepts
  • Routes
  • A “route” is a preconfigured specialization of a methodology, depending on a variety of factors:
    • custom vs. packaged solution
    • degree of project team distribution
    • project team size
    • technology platform
    • application type
  • Examples
    • Custom Client/Server: Large Project
    • Custom Client/Server: Small Project
    • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
    • Packaged Systems Development
    • Data Warehouse
    • SAP implementation
core concepts10
Core Concepts
  • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
  • A shortened route with the following characteristics:
    • high degree of development tool usage and code generation
    • Joint Application Development (JAD) workshops instead of interviewing
    • assumes reuse of existing technical architecture and standards
    • time-boxing (90-day implementation schedule)
    • highly iterative
core concepts11
Traditional

User

Design

Tech

Design

Req’ts

Analysis

Construct

RAD

User

Design

Req’ts

Construct

Core Concepts

RAD vs. Traditional

core concepts12
Core Concepts
  • Techniques
  • Provide detailed how-to guidelines
  • Fall into 2 main categories:
    • Process techniques
    • Modeling/Diagramming techniques
slide24
Core Concepts

Process for Building Data Models

  • Review existing data models
  • Define entities
      • Independent
      • Dependent, including Intersection entities
  • Define attributes and keys (primary, foreign)
  • Define relationships
  • Finalize ERD
  • Normalize
  • Integrate data models as required
  • Verify completeness of the data model
  • Validate the data model
      • With users
      • With the enterprise’s data administrator

Diagramming technique available

Process technique available

slide25
Core Concepts

Modeling/Diagramming

Technique

slide26
Core Concepts

Normalization (Process Technique)

1NF = No repeating groups

2NF = 1NF + no partial dependencies (non-key attribute dependent on portion of primary key)

3NF = 2NF + no transitive dependencies (non-key attribute dependent on another non-key attribute)

core concepts13
Core Concepts
  • Draw a high-level data model to show how these components of a methodology relate to one another:
    • Processes (what)
    • Deliverables (what)
    • Techniques (how)
    • Roles (who)
    • Estimating guidelines (how long)
slide28
Optimizing

Level

Managed Level

Defined Level

Repeatable Level

Initial Level

Core Concepts

Capability Maturity Model (CMM)

  • A framework for:
    • Judging the maturity of an organization’s software processes
    • Identifying key practices required to increase the maturity of these practices
  • Levels of maturity
core concepts14
Core Concepts

CMM applies to all aspects of software engineering, not just process

People

Process

Technology

today s agenda2
Today’s Agenda

Topic Duration

  • Questionnaire & Intros 20 minutes
  • Core Concepts 45 minutes

*** Break 10 minutes

  • Core Concepts (cont.) 30 minutes
  • Course Overview 30 minutes
  • SD Process: Why or why not? 30 minutes
  • Marketplace Snapshot 30 minutes
slide31
Course Objectives

IS 553 will enable you to develop, use, and improve systems development practices

Specific Objectives

  • Define the components of a software development process (content, tools, roles, meta-processes).
  • Analyze key players, products, and philosophies in the software development process "space" (past, present, and future). The course will analyze two current processes -- the Rational Unified Process (RUP), and Agile Methods (exemplified by Extreme Programming (XP)) -- in depth.
  • Identify key success factors to optimize continuous improvement of a software development process. The course will examine the use of software metrics and the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in this context.
  • Examine two key systems development “enablers”: tools and training
  • Explore implications of distributed systems development teams
  • Explore implications of other IT trends
slide32
Your grade

Homework Assignments 25%

Quizzes 25%

Term Paper 25%

Class Participation 25%

--------

100%

slide33
Course Map

Underpinnings

. Introduction

. Essentials

Content

. Rational Unified Process

. Agile

Implementation

. Metrics

. CMM

. Distributed development

. Tools & training

Briefings (Term Papers)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Week

Assignments

Quizzes

(Distr. Dev.)

(RUP)

(Agile)

(CMM)

slide34
Course Assignments
  • Assignment 1 – Critique of article on the spiral approach to systems development
  • Assignment 2 - Deliverable view of RUP
  • Assignment 3 – Proposal and rough outline for term paper
  • Assignment 4 – Risk mitigation plan for offshore development
  • Assignment 5 - Summary of marketplace development
my role
My role
  • Facilitate learning
  • Plan, prepare, and conduct lectures and learning activities
  • Assess student progress and provide feedback
  • Relate concepts to real-world problems
  • Provide classroom environment conducive to learning
  • Clearly state expectations
  • Gather and implement suggestions for improving the class
  • Keep it fun
my coordinates
My coordinates
  • email: [email protected]
  • phone: 312-261-3838
  • office hours: Tuesdays, 4:00-5:30, CTI room 703
your role
Your role
  • Be proactive
  • Share your experience
  • Come to class prepared
  • Collaborate with other students as appropriate
  • Ask if you don’t understand or if I’m not clear
  • Provide constructive feedback (“This class would be better if . . .”)
class participation
Class Participation

Subjective evaluation of participation:

A Consistently asks good questions, makes valuable observations, and answers questions effectively

B Frequent participant, but not all questions, answers, and observations are effective, or not consistently active

C Participates infrequently, or questions/answers do not reflect adequate preparation, or late to class

D Very rare participation, or questions/answers reflect little or no preparation, or very late to class

F Displays no sign of life, or absent for entire class

today s agenda3
Today’s Agenda

Today’s agenda

Topic Duration

  • Questionnaire & Intros 20 minutes
  • Core Concepts 45 minutes

*** Break 10 minutes

  • Core Concepts (cont.) 30 minutes
  • Course Overview 30 minutes
  • SD Process: Why or why not? 30 minutes
  • Marketplace Snapshot 30 minutes
slide40
Justifying a Methodology
  • Vendors and consultants have not done much to substantiate quantitatively the value of their methodologies
  • What would you say if asked to provide justification?
slide41
Common Drivers Behind Methodology Adoption
  • Project failure leads to realization that “we need a more formal process”
  • Codify best practices, so as to increase predictability and reliability of software development process
    • especially as IT organization grows
  • Continued pressure on time to market and quality (web services)
  • Certification (e.g., Capability Maturity Model)
  • Desire to stay current and/or sustain/develop competitive edge
  • Need to support distributed development teams (multi-site and/or multi-organization)
methodology who needs it
Methodology - Who needs it?

“Any first attempt at converting folklore into knowledge, and a guessing game into a discipline, is liable to be misread as a downgrading of individual ability and its replacement by a rule book. Any such attempt would be nonsense, of course. No book will ever make a wise man out of a donkey or a genius out of an incompetent. The foundation in a discipline, however, gives to today’s competent physician a capacity to perform well beyond that of the ablest doctor of a century ago, and enables the outstanding physician of today to do what the medical genius of yesterday could hardly have dreamt of. No discipline can lengthen a man’s arm. But it can lengthen his reach by hoisting him on the shoulders of his predecessors. Knowledge organized in a discipline does a good deal for the merely competent; it endows him with some effectiveness. It does infinitely more for the truly able; it endows him with excellence.”

From Managing for Results, by Peter F. Drucker

today s agenda4
Today’s Agenda

Today’s agenda

Topic Duration

  • Questionnaire & Intros 20 minutes
  • Core Concepts 45 minutes

*** Break 10 minutes

  • Core Concepts (cont.) 30 minutes
  • Course Overview 30 minutes
  • SD Process: Why or why not? 30 minutes
  • Marketplace Snapshot 30 minutes
slide44
What does a methodology product consist of?
  • Content
    • processes, deliverables, etc.
    • pre-defined routes
  • Delivery vehicle (e.g., browser)
  • Tools for authoring and publishing content
  • Tools for applying the methodology to a specific project
    • project planning and estimating tools
    • process management tools
    • project management tools
  • Deliverable templates tightly coupled with a development and/or execution platform
  • Training and support
  • Maintenance
slide45
Methodology Marketplace

No single vendor dominates this market

  • IBM’s Rational Software is collecting a fair amount of mindshare
  • 3 key categories to consider:
    • methodologies developed and delivered by consultants
    • methodologies from software tool vendors
    • methodologies from industry consortia or other groups
  • Tremendous variability among the products
    • Content
    • Delivery vehicles
    • Integration with development tools
slide46
Methodologies Developed and Delivered by Consultants

Consulting firms methodologies have greatest depth and breadth of content, but not all sell their methodology as a standalone product

slide47
Methodologies from Software Development Tool Vendors

Customers are increasingly demanding (and receiving) process guidance from their tool vendors

slide48
Methodologies from Industry Consortia or Gurus

There is a growing interest among large corporate shops in so-called “agile” methods from industry gurus

slide49
Key Trends: Content
  • Component-based development (CBD)
  • Software reuse
  • Agile processes
  • Development of mobile applications
  • Development with/for web services
  • Distributed development teams, especially offshore
  • Attention to security
slide50
How Does a Methodology Stay Fresh?
  • Experience
  • New technologies that cause changes in development processes
  • Consortia/Gurus
  • Academics

“ . . . those looking for true best practices and leading edge methodologies should turn to the consulting industry rather than tool or software vendors” -- Giga Information Group

slide51
Mapping Computing Eras to Technology Maturity Curve
  • Mainframe
  • Decentralized

High

  • Distributed

Degree of Take-up

  • Internet
  • Mobile
  • ???

Incubation

Maturity

Adaptation

Take Up

Time

Life Cycle Stage

Key SD

Process

Change

Content Dev

Components

Iterative Dev

GUI Design

Bus Process Redesign

???

slide52
For April 6
  • Read Royce article
  • Assignment 1- Critique the Royce article
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