Persuasive Techniques Faulty Logic Propaganda Techniques How Other People Change Your Mind
What Are Persuasive Techniques? • Persuasive Techniques are methods an author or advertiser may use to get you to do/think/feel as they hope you will. • These techniques can be used effectively, but they are not always terribly strong or logical.
Logos = Appeal to Reason • Appeals to Reason use our knowledge and our ability to reason to persuade an audience to do/think/feel something. • Appeals to Reason frequently use numbers, facts, figures, and sums to convince through logical analysis.
Example of Logos • “At ACME Corporation, we price our high-quality explosive devices to be less than half the cost of other bombs, while maintaining the same health and safety standards of higher-priced products.”
Example of Logos ACME's new dihydro cesium detonation process! By combining cesium and dihydro-oxide in laboratory conditions, and capturing the released energy, ACME has promised to lead the way into the future. Our energy source is clean, safe, and powerful. No pollutants are released into the atmosphere. The world will soon have an excellent source of clean energy.
Types of Logos –Cause and Effect • Cause and effect is often a form logical appeal. An author may illustrate a cause and effect relationship in order to show an audience why they should do/think/feel a certain way. • This appeals to the audience’s sense of logic because the author depends on their ability to see or analyze the connection between the cause and the effect.
Example of Cause and Effect • “Studies have shown that students who spend more time on homework have statistically higher quiz and test scores.” • “If every American made a conscious effort to reduce their amount of trash they produce, we could significantly reduce our landfill needs.”
Types of Logos –Analogy • Analogy is another form of logical appeal, one which uses the audience’s understanding of a simple subject in order to draw a comparison to a more complex topic. • The audience’s ability to reason and make logical connections is still relied upon here.
Examples of Analogy • “Cleaning the house while kids are still growing is like shoveling the sidewalk while it’s still snowing.” • “Pork - the other white meat.”
Pathos= Appeal to Emotion • Emotional appeals try to elicit emotions from the audience. • Strong emotions such as happiness and delight can make a person wish to act in a way that will prolong that emotion. • Negative emotions such as guilt, sadness, anger, and regret can make a person wish to act in a way that will get rid of the negativity.
Ethos = Appeal to Authority • Writers generally attempt to make themselves seem well informed and trustworthy. • In order to make themselves seem informed, they may draw on personal experience that portrays understanding and authority. • A writer may also use the words of real experts and sources of authority to lend credibility to his or her argument.
Do they have credibility? • Teenage boy giving advice on motherhood • Brad Pitt on a cologne advertisement. • Donald Trump speaking about what its like to be poor in America. • Bernie Sanders (white politician) speaking about racial injustice. • A woman against abortion arguing for women's rights.
Example of Ethos/ Appeal to Authority • Acme Gizmotronics, the company that you've trusted for over 100 years. Our spokesperson, Mr. Coyote says, "I'm not really a coyote, but I play one on tv. I've used Acme products for years. Their slingshots, rocket launchers, crowbars, pogo sticks, and power pills are the best around. And don't forget their high-powered dynamite! I buy everything from Acme. They are the company that I trust the most."
Speaker/ Ethos Occasion/ context Occasion/ context Purpose Audience/ Pathos Subject/ Logos Occasion/ context
Directions: For each of the following five examples, identify which kind of persuasive technique is evident. For these examples, you will pick from the following: - Logos (Appeal to Reason) - Cause and Effect - Analogy - Pathos (Appeal to Emotion) - Ethos (Appeal to Authority) Checking for Comprehension
Example 1 • Studies show that watching the History Channel will positively impact a student’s grade in World Studies. Write down which persuasive technique is being used here.
Answer? Logos / Cause and Effect • Why? What are your clues? • You have a cause: Watching the History Channel. • You have an effect: Positive impact on grades.
Example 2 • Watching TV all the time is like becoming a vegetable, namely a potato. Write down which persuasive technique is being used here.
Answer? Logos - Analogy • What was your clue? • The word “like” is often used in analogies!
Example 3 • Every elementary school principal in the state of Arizona agrees that watching too much television is detrimental to their students. Write down which persuasive technique is being used here.
Answer? Ethos / Appeal to Authority • How did you know? • The principal! (He’s an authority!)
Example 4 • Parents, if you truly love your children and care about their futures, you will turn off the TV and take them for a walk. Write down which persuasive technique is being used here.
Answer? Pathos/ Appeal to Emotions • Your clues? • Love. • Care.
Example 5 • Students who complete their AR are four times more likely to pass the AIMS Reading exam. Write down which persuasive technique is being used here.
Answer? Logos / Appeal to Reason • Your clues? • “Four times more likely” is a fact or a statistic being used to persuade.