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SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments, An Overview of the Biological Responses. The biological response to in situ Southern Ocean iron fertilization. Richard T. Barber and SOFeX Team. Richard Barber and the SOFeX Group.

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the biological response to in situ southern ocean iron fertilization

SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments,

An Overview of the Biological Responses

The biological response to in situ Southern Ocean iron fertilization.

Richard T. Barber

and SOFeX Team

Richard Barber

and the SOFeX Group

slide2

Primary productivity, photosynthetic performance and quantum yield team on the three ships:

R/V Revelle: Barber, Lance, Stuebe

R/V Melville: Hilting, Hiscock, Apprill, Delizo, Tanner

USCG Polar Star: Van Hilst

FRRF data provided by Sasha Tozzi.

PAM data provided by Jill Peloquin.

POC flux data provided by Ken Buesseler.

slide3

North Patch

Temp. 7.5ºC

Si(OH)4 2.0μM

NO3 21μM

+Fe 1.2nM

South Patch

Temp. -0.5ºC

Si(OH)4 63μM

NO3 27μM

+Fe 0.7nM

slide4

SP

NP

Underway nutrients and temperature figure provided by W. T. Hiscock, U. Miami.

slide5

SOFeX Productivity

DUKE - MBARI - VIMS - SIO

South Patch

4

Melville

Revelle

Fertilization

Polar Star

3

2

Surface Chl (mg Chl m-3)

1

0

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Year Day

slide6

South Patch

Melville

Revelle

Fertilization

4

3

Popt (mmolC m-3 d-1)

2

1

0

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Year Day

SOFeX Productivity

DUKE - MBARI - VIMS - SIO

slide7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

20

40

60

80

100

North Out

North In

120

140

160

Initial "Pre" PP profile

Earliest "In" PP profile

Final "Out" PP profile

Final "In" PP profile

0

20

40

South Out

South In

60

80

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

-3

-1

Prim. Prod. GF/F (mmol C m

d

)

Zmorel (m)

Zmorel (m)

slide11

Melville

Revelle

Fertilization

SOFeX Productivity

DUKE - MBARI - VIMS - SIO

North Patch

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

Surface Chl (mg Chl m-3)

1.0

0.5

0.0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Year Day

slide12

North Patch

Melville

Revelle

7

Fertilization

6

5

Popt (mmolC m-3 d-1)

4

3

2

1

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Year Day

SOFeX Productivity

DUKE - MBARI - VIMS - SIO

slide16

Out 10%

40

In 10%

30

Binned Int PP (mmol C m-2 d-1)

20

10

1

2

3

Weeks Post First Fertilization

slide21

Outs

PAM- bulk assemblage for South Patch, bars are iron additions, circled data are OUTs. Cells never reached photochemical maximum for 20 m water for PAM (0.70).

results
Results
  • 10x increase in Chl in both N and S patch
  • 10x increase in productivity (Popt) in both N and S patch
  • 3 to 4x increase in integrated primary productivity
  • 3 to 4x increase in quantum yield in South patch, but no differential enhancement of quantum yield in large (> 20 μm) phytoplankton
  • Big change in size composition in N patch despite low Si conditions, but only modest change in size composition in S patch with high Si conditions
  • In patch POC flux about 30% of In patch PP integrated to 10% light level; Out flux about 40% of Out PP integrated to 10% light level
remaining questions
Remaining Questions
  • Depth of export
  • Fate of exported organic carbon at depth
  • Cellular mechanism of “fast” photosynthetic efficiency response to Fe
  • Nature of temperature vs. photosynthetic efficiency relationship
slide29

South Patch

Melville

80

Revelle

Fertilization

70

60

50

% Popt >20 μm

40

30

20

10

0

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Year Day

SOFeX Productivity

DUKE - MBARI - VIMS - SIO