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Strategies for Urban Disaster Risk Reduction

Strategies for Urban Disaster Risk Reduction

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Strategies for Urban Disaster Risk Reduction

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  1. Strategies for Urban Disaster Risk Reduction • Yasuo Tanaka • RCUSS, Kobe University

  2. List of presentation • UDRR strategy; learning from the lessons gained through the 1995 Kobe Earthquake • Societal Issues • Human Issues • Engineering Issues • Example of UDRR strategy: RCUSS, Kobe Univ. experiences • What we should do?: Concluding remarks

  3. The lessons from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake • Societal Issue: Poor coordination among the emergency response organizations (i.e., Hyogo Pref. vs. Self Defense Force) • Social Issue: Poor support system for disaster victims (previously no cash support for property damages)

  4. The lessons from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake • Social & Cultural Issue: 1.4 million volunteers gathered Kobe to help (Ground zero for volunteerism in Japan) • Engineering Issue: Introduction of Seismic Intensity 7 (Levels 1 & 2 for seismic design)

  5. 1995 Kobe Earthquake : Urban Earthquake • The lessons from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake varies from engineering to societal & cultural issues. • The lessons learnt from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake are very important for Urban Disaster Risk Reduction (UDRR) & Education. • Reduction of Urban Disaster Risk can only be achieved by Holistic & Pro-Active approach.

  6. Social Issue: Impacts on Japanese DM Policy Disaster Countermeasure Basic Act Basic Disaster Management Plan DCBA & BDMP

  7. Social Issue: Impact on Japanese DM Organization (NLA to CAO) DCBA , Central & Local DMP, Disaster Management Council

  8. Basic Disaster Management Plan of 1995 revision • Poor coordination of emergency response has been revised in 1995 BDMP. • Multi-Hazard approach (The 2009 BDMP has 15 sections with 409 pages including disasters such as snowstorm, large fires, atomic facility incidents, sea and air transportation incidents, and others).

  9. Social Issue: Support for Disaster Victims • The needs for the individual house owners to re-build their properties were strongly demanded by the governors and mayors of disaster hit areas. • Act on support for livelihood recovery of disaster victims (1998) • Amendment in 2007 to remove the restriction and to raise the maximum amount to 3 million yen. • Engineering Issue: Introduction of Seismic Intensity 7 (Levels 1 & 2 for seismic design)

  10. Human Issue: Volunteers’ Involvements in DM • Inclusion of “volunteer” after the 1995 BDMP. • Legal support for the volunteer organization to have an official recognition and business registration”Act on special measures concerning non-profit organization” (1998)

  11. Engineering Issue: Introduction of Seismic Intensity 7 • Various engineering seismic design codes adapted the two level seismic design approach. • Introduction of “Performance Based Design” to evaluate the structural & system performance under Level 2. • Further improvements are needed in the details of hazard and disaster risk assessments (e.g., various scenario earthquakes, fragility curves for different structures and risks). • Engineering Issue: Introduction of Seismic Intensity 7 (Levels 1 & 2 for seismic design)

  12. List of presentation • UDRR strategy; learning from the lessons gained through the 1995 Kobe Earthquake • Societal Issues • Human Issues • Engineering Issues • Example of UDRR strategy: RCUSS, Kobe Univ. experiences • What we should do?: Concluding remarks

  13. 神戸大学都市安全研究センター

  14. RCUSS, Kobe Univ. Approach

  15. Risk Assessment • Technological Assessment: Fault rupture, Ground Condition, Local Site Effects, Structural Damage, Lifeline Network, Casualties, etc • Sociological Assessment: Economical Impact, Social Impact, Psychological Effects, etc

  16. Risk Management (Immediate & Long Term) • Technological Management: Rebuilding of Infrastructures, Rescue Operations, Lifelines, Prevention of Secondary Disasters, etc • Sociological Management: Community Recovery, Management of Economy & Society, Psychological Recoveries, etc

  17. Risk Communications • Technological: Disaster Information, Emergency Communication, etc • Sociological: Disaster Education, Culture of Disaster, People’s Awareness & Preparedness etc

  18. RCUSS, Kobe Univ. Approach Risk Assessment, Risk Management, Risk Communication by taking an earthquake study as an example;

  19. JICA Group Training: “Mitigation Strategy for Mega-Urban Earthquake Disaster” 2004 to 2011 with over 80 participants @2010 Spring from the world. UDRR training through a framework of Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication.

  20. List of presentation • UDRR strategy; learning from the lessons gained through the 1995 Kobe Earthquake • Societal Issues • Human Issues • Engineering Issues • Example of UDRR strategy: RCUSS, Kobe Univ. experiences • What we should do?: Concluding remarks

  21. AUDRR Kobe : Alliance for Urban Disaster Risk Reduction • “Building an Alliance for Disaster Education and Supporting Activities towards Urban Disaster Risk Reduction” • Special Education & Research Funds & Cooperation Program: a research project given to RCUSS, Kobe Univ. by the MEXT of Japanese government for 3 years (2009 – 2011).

  22. AUDRR Vision

  23. Organization • Create “Knowledge Base for UDRR” • Human Resource Development • Support on International Activities for UDRR

  24. Knowledge Base for UDRR

  25. Role of academic institutions are very important Partnership in Building Resilient Cities through Evidence Based Science of Disaster and Recovery • To build “Knowledge Base for Disaster and Recovery” • To build “Platform (Council) for Urban Disaster Risk Reduction @ each city” • To build “Human Resource Development program for UDRR”

  26. Targets • AUDRR for many different cities !! • Specialists for UDRR will keep “Building Resilient Cities” over the world. • Difference of history, culture, social, economic and etc. back grounds among different cities needs to be recognized to build best UDRR strategy for each city.

  27. UDRR Strategy based on Bogota’s Uniqueness • 2010 Bi-Centennial of Independence: Simón Bolívar, network among 5 nations. • Strong economical growth • Strong preservation of historical developments: Museum Del Oro. • History of wining the security of city