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Basic Horticultural Botany
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  1. Basic Horticultural Botany

  2. What is Horticulture? • Horticulture is the art and science of growing vegetable, fruit, medicinal and ornamental plants • Agronomy covers the food and fiber and energy crops that are grown on large acreages and are usually seed propagated

  3. What are Horticultural Plants? • Fruit • Tropical : mango, papaya • Subtropical: Orange, fig • Temperate: Apple, Pear • A fruit is an enlarged ovary with seeds and attached parts

  4. What are Horticultural Plants? • Vegetables • Cool Season: broccoli • Cauliflower, spinach,onion • Warm season • New Zealand spinach • In the grocery store language: Tomatoes, peppers and squash • Vegetables Botanically are plant parts without ovary/seeds.

  5. What are Horticultural Plants? • Drugs • Plants that have medical use: Echinacea, willow, Ginkgo

  6. What are Horticultural Plants? • Condiments/ spices: • Plants used to make flavorings: mustard, curry

  7. What are Horticultural Plants? • Beverage Plants • Coffee, Tea, • Herbal Tisanes • Hops for beer • Agave for Tequila

  8. What are Horticultural Plants? • Ornamental Plants • Herbaceous – flowers and foliage plants • Annuals • Perennials • Woody trees and shrubs • Ornamentals are planted for shade, beauty, Climate control, windbreaks…

  9. Basic Botany/ plant classification Scientific names , Common names Kingdom Division Class Order Family Genus ( pl. Genera) species( sp. or spp.) Cultivar or variety Plantae Tracheophyta Angiospermae Rosales Rosaceae Malus domestica ‘Honeycrisp’

  10. More terms used to classify plants • Annuals- completes the life cycle in one season • Biennial – usually takes two years to complete the life cycle ( carrots, cabbage) • Perennial- usually lives more than 2 years • Woody – trees and shrubs • Deciduous/ evergreen • Herbaceous • Tender/hardy

  11. Plant Structures • Flowering plants are divided into to large groups: monocots and dicots • Monocot means there is one seed leaf ( Cotyledon) in the seed. Dicot means two seed leaves.

  12. Annual herbaceous plant Leaves, stems and roots are vegetative but can be used in asexual reproduction Flowers, seeds are sexual reproductive parts Vegetative vs reproductive

  13. Inside a herbaceous stem

  14. Inside a woody stem

  15. Cell types • Parenchyma • Schlerenchyma

  16. 3 year old woody twig

  17. Modified stems- often used in propagation • Spur • Sucker • Stolon • crown • Rhizome • Tuber • Bulb • Corm

  18. Leafa stem appendage with a bud at it’s base

  19. Leaf types

  20. Leaf margins

  21. Leaf shapes

  22. leaf

  23. Buds • Axillary • Terminal • Bud scales ( temperate) • Chilling requirements • Leaf/flower/mixed

  24. Roots/ Function • Absorb water and nutrients • Anchor the plant in the soil • Support the stem • Food storage • propagation • First to emerge from the seed • Positive geotaxis • No nodes • No leaves or flowers

  25. Root vs Stem Stem cross section Root cross section

  26. Roots • Tap root ( dicot) • Fibrous roots ( monocot) • Lateral /secondary root/branch root • Generally extend beyond the top

  27. Flowers • Sexual reproduction • Built to attract pollinators • People can be considered pollinators • Can be perfect (complete) • Unisexual • Plants can be monoecious or dioecious

  28. Basic plant life cycle • Dormancy: seeds or buds fail to grow when given good conditions. • Vegetative: seedling to Juvenile • Reproductive: when plant is large enough to flower • Senescence: ripening of seed, and fruit, leaf drop

  29. Dormancy • Hormonal dormancy • Timed by hormones many temperate plants show this ex. Apple trees • Environmental dormancy • Cold or dryness keeps seed from germinating • Other types in seed dormancy

  30. Vegetative growth

  31. Reproductive Growth • The plant has to reach its mature stage before it can start flowering. In tomatoes this happens in 30+ days after transplant to the garden. In Apple trees it can be 5-7 years

  32. Primary Metabolism • Photosynthesis • Sunlight • Chloroplasts in a live plant • Carbon dioxide • Energy is changed from light to chemical energy ( sugars) • Oxygen released • Water is used and produced • Respiration • Energy is released from sugars for plant energy • Oxygen is used • Water is used and produced • CO2 is produced • Happens in dark and in light • Occurs in all living cells ( mitochondria)

  33. Photosynthesis CO2+ H20 +sunlight +green plant C6H12O6 + O2+ H2O Respiration C6H12O6 + O2+ H2O CO2+ H20 + 36 ATP

  34. Transpiration 99 % of the water that enters the plant is used in Transpiration, 1% in metabolism

  35. Plant growth Regulators • Plant hormones or other chemicals that influence growth of plants. • Auxins -Gibberellins • Cytokinins -Abscisic Acid • Ethylene