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FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN THE SMALLHOLDER FARMING SECTOR OF ZIMBABWE SOME KEY FINDINGS WAY FORWARD
SOME KEY FINDINGS • Grazing • Encroachment in grazing areas • Land fragmentation • Severe in NR I; serious in NR II/ III • NR’s IV/ V: communal pastures up to Aug; thereafter use of browse and three-tier grazing areas • Use of unimproved crop residues in winter (80% of farmers) • Low livestock numbers - impact of droughts in NR’s IV and V • Animal genetics • Poor breeding practices • : Farmer initiative in Chishakwe: purchasing shared bulls; by-law castrating/ selling midgets
ANIMAL (CATTLE) HEALTH • Control of animal diseases a challenge • Cost of dipping services highly subsidised • Govt and NGO’s work with communities in restoring dipping services: impact noticeable • Inadequate vaccination programmes • Concern: re-invasion of Tsetse: Tsholotsho, Gokwe, Mbire; game fence vandalised • LDC’s • not fully functional; limited mandate
SMALLHOLDER DAIRY • Victim of bad macroeconomic fundamentals: collapse in 2008 • Poor management of dairy herd • Grazing and feed resources inadequate: Tsonzo: 5 ha under silage c.w. 70ha at peak • Recapitalisation, re-Training in dairying and business management needed • DDP providing inadequate support/ backstopping service
GOATS THE GOAT FORUM • Value chain analysis of goat sector: low productivity; poorly developed markets • Market used as entry point • Establishment of Innovation Platforms: • Goat marketing a priority in Mat South • Goat productivity focus in Mat North
OTHER LIVESTOCK Donkeys, Chickens, Pigs, Rabbits, Guinea fowl • Low productivity • Poorly developed markets • Collapse of market: Ostriches NB: dearth of finance for livestock projects: one site by a commercial bank; collateral + repayment in 3-6 mths.
Livestock and CA • Misconceptions • Situation • Livestock get priority with maize stover, groundnut hulls, cowpea residues • Treatment of maize stover with urea/ AN • Use of sorghum and millet stover as mulch • Small areas (0.2ha) under CA, input incentive • Labour supply considerations
WAY FORWARD • General considerations • NR’s I/II/III: Intensive to semi-extensive farming; mixed cropping • NR’s IV/ V: Semi-arid; Rainfall received sufficient for grassland; palatable grass species Livestock production models for humid areas different from drier areas • NR’s I/ II/ III: commercial operations in dairy, pigs, chickens: rely on grain-based feeding systems • Semi-arid areas: beef, sheep, goat ranging
SOME KEY SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Intensification of land use to accommodate forage production Sacrifice some arable land to grow forage; consider inter-cropping/ multiple cropping Forage market in smallholder farming areas Innovative ways of managing grazing areas; by-laws (community enforced), control movement of animals through local structures. Developing sources of livestock Re-stock with appropriate breeds Breeding centres for ruminant livestock, pigs: can be promoted on private farms, research stations, registered breeding centres Strengthen farmers’ commodity associations
SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Revive pasture seed industry Seed not available on local market Revival of stakeholder managed societies: Grasslands Society of Zim, ZSAP Drought mitigation and other emergency relief programmes Large scale feeding pens constructed Constructions incomplete esp. with water supplies Structures neglected, vandalised Maintenance/ Mgt: Local structures; Livestock Mgt Committees More livestock interventions
SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Strengthen Livestock Development Committees – capacity building initiatives, widen mandate: presently largely with dipping management, to include management of other livestock infrastructure and as contact for livestock-related issues at local level - Farmers to take ownership of services, to pay full cost Transforming DDP to a Trust Autonomy, accountability to more stakeholders: more confidence Appropriately constituted Board: activities to be in line with national development goals Financing options for revival of smallholder livestock sector Limited short term finance available Special vehicle to mobilise and disburse funds for livestock projects for the smallholder sector: low interest rates Priorities: Heifer purchase, Pen-fattening, Grazier scheme Special vehicle: To be a Trust
STUDY TEAM • Felistas Ndlovu • Clifford Zisengwe • Godfrey Manyawu • Langton Mukwereza