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Chapter 31: World War II & Its Aftermath. Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes Section 4: Toward Victory Section 5: From World War To Cold War. Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War.

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Chapter 31 world war ii its aftermath

Chapter 31:World War II & Its Aftermath

Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes

Section 4: Toward Victory

Section 5: From World War To Cold War


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • In the 1930s, Italy, Germany, and Japan wanted to build new empires

    • The three nations formed an alliance known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (or Axis Powers)

      • They agreed to let each other attack and take over new lands


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war1
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • The League of nations had no power to stop the Axis Powers

    • Most other countries avoid conflict out of fear of war

      • The world was busy recovering from the Great Depression

        • No one tried to halt the acts of aggression that led to World War II


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war2
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • In 1936, civil war broke out in Spain

    • Italy and Germany helped General Franco gain control

      • Both sides used new weapons and committed horrible acts of violence

        • The brutal showed how much destruction a modern war could cause


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war3
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • German aggression continued

    • Britain and France still tried to keep peace through a policy of appeasement, or giving into the demand of an aggressor

      • The United States remained neutral


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war4
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • By 1939, Hitler had taken all of Austria and Czechoslovakia

    • It was clear that appeasement had failed

      • Britain and France promised to protect Poland from Nazi attack


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war5
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • In August of 1939, Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union

    • The long-time enemies agreed not to fight each other


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war6
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • One week after signed the non-aggression pact with the USSR, German armies invaded Poland

    • Britain and France kept their promise

      • On September 3, 1939, they declared war on Germany

        • World War II had begun



Section 1 aggression appeasement and war7
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • Aggressive Steps Toward World War II

1931 - Japan invades Manchuria

1935 - Italy invades Ethiopia

1936 - Germany sends troops into the Rhineland

1937 - Japan takes over much of eastern China

1938 - Germany makes Austria part of its empire

1938 - Germany takes Sudetenland

1938 - Germany takes over Czechoslovakia

1939 - Italy takes over Albania

1939 - Germany invades Poland

1939 - Britain and France declare war


Section 1 aggression appeasement and war8
Section 1: Aggression, Appeasement, and War

  • The Big Idea:

    • During the 1930s, dictators undermined peace by committing acts of aggression and taking foreign lands

    • Throughout the 1930s, nothing stopped the acts of aggression that finally led to war


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

  • During World War II, the Axis powers of Germany, Italy and Japan were on one side

  • Allied powers of France and Britain were on the other

    • The Allies were soon joined by the Soviet Union, China, and the Unites States


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances1
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

  • Axis powers wanted to conquer Europe

    • The Germans used a type of warfare called Blitzkrieg, or “lightning war”

      • Planes, and new, faster tanks swiftly took Poland


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances2
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

  • The blitzkrieg overran much of Europe

    • France fell in June 1940

      • Britain stood alone against the Axis


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances3
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

  • In September 1940, Hitler began a bombing, or blitz, of London

    • The British Royal Air Force used newly developed radar that detected approaching aircraft

      • They held off the Germans


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances4
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

  • The British, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, would not give up

    • In June 1941, Hitler ended the bombing


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances5
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

  • Then, with Britain still a threat, Hitler attacked the Soviet Union

    • Germany was seeking access to the Soviet Union’s vast mineral resources

    • The Soviets fought back, but were defeated again and again throughout 1941

      • But the fiercest winter in over a century stalled the German attack and gave the Soviets time to recover

        • In the meantime, Britain and the USSR became allies


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances6
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

  • The Japanese wanted control of the Pacific but felt that United States stood in their way

    • On December 7th, 1941, Japanese planes bombed a naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

      • The next day the United States declared war on Japan

        • Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the United States


Section 2 the global conflict axis advances7
Section 2: The Global Conflict; Axis Advances

Modern Tanks

Walke Talkies

Modern Submarines

Machine Guns

Modern Warfare

Of World War II

Radar

Sonar

Modern Airplanes

Deadlier Bombs

Medical Advances

Aircraft Carriers


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes

  • Germany and Japan wanted to establish total control of the people they conquered

    • The Germans robbed occupied lands of art and resources


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes1
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes

  • Hitler planned to kill all the people he thought were “racially inferior”

    • Nazi racism was aimed most directly at the Jews


Chapter 31 world war ii its aftermath

  • Nazi propaganda repeatedly stressed the notion that Jews were “enemies of the German people”

  • Jews were created as the anti-symbol

    • They were viewed as the embodiment of evil

    • To illustrate the culpability of Jews, the Nazis placed emphasis on the criminality of Jews and the conspiracy of foreign Jews against Germany.


Chapter 31 world war ii its aftermath

  • The notion that Jews outside of Germany threatened a conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • The Nazis directed their anti-Semitic propaganda at both domestic and foreign audiences


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes2
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • The Nazis built concentration camps, or detention centers for civilians, where Jews were starved, shot, or gassed to death

    • By 1945, over six million Jews had died in what became known as the Holocaust

      • Gypsies, Slavs, and the mentally ill were victims too


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes concentration camps
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes; conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938Concentration Camps


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes3
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • The Japanese were also brutal rulers

    • They killed and tortured prisoners

      • They stole food crops and forced conquered people into slave labor


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes4
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Up until 1942, it looked like the Axis was winning the war

    • However, the Allied nations began to wage total war

      • Factories made tanks instead of cars

      • The Allies rationed goods to supply their troops

      • Women replaced men in jobs, served in the armed forces, and joined resistance groups


Chapter 31 world war ii its aftermath

Wartime factory production conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938


Chapter 31 world war ii its aftermath

Rationing conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938


Chapter 31 world war ii its aftermath

Women in the Workforce conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes5
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Even democratic nations limited civil rights during wartime

    • A fear of spies led the United States to force many Japanese Americans to in in relocation camps


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes6
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • By 1942, Allied victories turned the tide of the war

    • The first turning points came in North Africa, Italy, and the Soviet Union


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes7
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Battle of El Alamein (1942)


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes8
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Battle of Stalingrad


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes9
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Invasion of Italy


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes10
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Battle of Midway


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes11
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), Allied soldiers landed at Normandy in France

    • They broke through the German lines and freed Paris

      • By the end of September 1944, all of France was free


Section 3 the global conflict allied successes12
Section 3: The Global Conflict; Allied Successes conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

Battle of El Alamein (1942)

-British drive back Germans

-Germans surrender African lands

Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43)

-Soviet troops defend Stalingrad, eventually forcing a German surrender

Turning Points

in WWII

Invasion of Normandy (1944)

-Allied troops land on the beaches of Normandy

-They go on to free France from German control

Invasion of Italy (1943)

-British & American forces land in Sicily

-Italian government surrenders

-Hitler sends in German troops and fighting continues until the end of the war


Section 4 toward victory
Section 4: Toward Victory conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • After their attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese won battle after battle.

    • However, the tide of war turned in 1942

      • In the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway Island, American victories stopped the Japanese advance


Section 4 toward victory1
Section 4: Toward Victory conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Successful attacks moved the United States forces closer to Japan

    • By 1944, their planes were bombing Japanese cities

    • Still, Japan would not surrender, or give up


Section 4 toward victory2
Section 4: Toward Victory conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • In Europe, Hitler fought to stop the Allied invasion of Germany

    • The bloody Battle of the Bulge in Belgium was the last real German effort

      • Air attacks pounded Germany day and night


Section 4 toward victory3
Section 4: Toward Victory conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Early in 1945, the Soviets moved in from the east, while the other Allied forces closed in from the west

    • As Soviet troops fought their way into Berlin, Hitler committed suicide

      • Berlin fell on May 2, 1945

        • On May 7th, Germany surrendered


Section 4 toward victory4
Section 4: Toward Victory conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • The Allies still had to defeat Japan

    • United States scientists had created a bomb, more powerful than any yet known

      • President Harry Truman decided the bomb would bring the quickest end to the war

        • Truman warned the Japanese, but they would not surrender


Section 4 toward victory5
Section 4: Toward Victory conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • On August 6, 1945, a United States plane dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan……still Japan did not give up!

    • Three days later, a second bomb hit the city of Nagasaki

      • On August 10, the Japanese asked for peace

        • World War II was over


Section 4 toward victory6
Section 4: Toward Victory conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Problem: Should the United States use the atomic bomb?

Reasons for:

-It would save American lives

-It would bring a quick end to the war

-It would show the power of the U.S. to future enemies

Reasons Against:

-Massive destruction

-Once used, it would be more likely to be used again

-It would release radiation

Decision: Truman orders use of bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Results:

-More than 110,000 die

-Japan surrenders


Section 5 from world war to cold war
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • As the Allies celebrated victory, the cost of the war became clear

    • Although the exact totals may never be known, at least 75,000,000 people died

      • The Soviet Union suffered more than 22,000,000 dead (from May 1941-April 1945 – an average of 18,000 deaths a day)

        • The entire Vietnam war saw only just over 58,000 American dead

        • Surviving Nazi war leaders were placed on trial at Nuremburg


Section 5 from world war to cold war1
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Cities were in ruins

    • Survivors faced hunger and disease

      • To keep the peace 50 countries set up the United Nations (UN)

        • The UN aimed to stop war, guard rights, and improve health and education


Section 5 from world war to cold war2
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union created the strongest military forces on Earth

    • Many Eastern European countries and part of Germany came under Soviet domination


Chapter 31 world war ii its aftermath

X conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

X

X

X

X

X

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Section 5 from world war to cold war3
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • The Soviet leader Stalin wanted to spread Communism and create a buffer zone to prevent attacks from the West

    • The United States and other democratic countries opposed Stalin’s plan

      • Tension between the two powers led to the Cold War, a state of conflict without armed battle


Section 5 from world war to cold war4
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • The “Iron Curtain” that separated Eastern Europe and free nations in the West became a symbol of the Cold War


Section 5 from world war to cold war5
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • The United States took steps to stop the spread of communism

    • In 1949, the free nations of the West set the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)


Section 5 from world war to cold war6
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • To counter NATO, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact, joining the Soviet Union and its satellite nations in Eastern Europe


Section 5 from world war to cold war7
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Truman Doctrine (1947)

  • U.S. program to stop the spread of communism

  • Offered to poor nations likely to fall to communism

  • States that the U.S. would give military and economic aid to any country fighting communism

  • Aid given to Greece and Turkey


Section 5 from world war to cold war8
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • Marshall Plan (1947)

  • Gave U.S. financial aid to rebuild Europe

  • Gave over 17 Billion in aid, including food, machinery, and raw materials

  • Welcomed by all nations of Europe except the Soviet Union and its Communist allies


Section 5 from world war to cold war9
Section 5: From World War To Cold War conspiracy against Germany was stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November 1938

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

  • Joined U.S., Britain, Canada, France, Italy, and six smaller nations in a military alliance

  • Formed to stop Communist takeovers in Europe

  • Maintained troops, military equipment, and weapons

  • Considered “an attack against one member as an attack against all members”