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Logic gate level. Part 4: combinational devices. K-maps & don’t care conditions. It isn’t always necessary to process all possible input combinations, since some are never expected to be present

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logic gate level

Logic gate level

Part 4: combinational devices

k maps don t care conditions
K-maps & don’t care conditions
  • It isn’t always necessary to process all possible input combinations, since some are never expected to be present
  • Such input combinations are called don’t care conditions, since we don’t care about the outputs they’d produce should they ever be present
k maps don t care conditions3
K-maps & don’t care conditions
  • With don’t care condition present, you can arbitarily choose either 1 or 0 for output
  • Choice of output (1 or 0) for don’t care conditions can aid in minimization
  • Sigma notation for don’t care conditions:

(x,y,z) + d(a,b) where x,y,z,a and b all represent lines in the function’s truth table

  • We represent don’t care conditions in a K-map with Xs
example
Example
  • K-map for X(a,b,c) = (2,4,6) + d(0,7)
  • With d.c. conditions, since we don’t care, we can choose to include, or not include, boxes with X designations in K-maps
    • X is “wildcard” condition – can be treated as either 1 or 0
    • In K-map above, if minterm 0 is treated as 1 and 7 as 0, get
      • (0,2,4,6) = c’
combinational devices
Combinational Devices
  • Many devices have input line called an enable, which acts like on/off switch
    • if enable is 0, all outputs are 0 regardless of other inputs
    • if enable is 1, output depends on input to function that specifies device
  • AND gate can implement an enable
selective inverter
Selective inverter
  • Has data line & invert line
    • If invert = 1, output is complement of data
    • If invert = 0, output is data unchanged
  • Implement with XOR gate
multiplexer
Multiplexer
  • Device that selects one of several inputs to route to single output
  • Consists of set of data lines & control lines
    • control lines determine which data input will be output
    • n control lines can control 2n data lines
8 input multiplexer
8-input multiplexer

Combination of control line

(s0-s2) inputs determines which of 8 data lines (d0-d7) is expressed as output value

implementation of multiplexer
Implementation of multiplexer
  • Each data line ANDed with combination of control lines
  • Result of ANDs is ORed together to get output
  • Illustration on next slide shows 4-input version of this scheme; 8-input version (like previous example) would involve 8 4-input AND gates
binary decoder
Binary decoder
  • Takes input from control lines and sets one of several output lines to 1, rest to 0
  • Output value depends on input value(s)
decoder with enable
Decoder with enable
  • When enable line is 1, device operates normally
  • When enable line is 0, all outputs are 0
  • Requires extra input to each AND gate
demultiplexer
Demultiplexer
  • Routes single input value to one of several output lines
  • Really just decoder with enable: input line connected to enable
building the cpu
Building the CPU
  • Control unit: portion of CPU that:
    • ensures synchronization of events – i.e. sending & receiving bits on the bus
    • selects next instruction
    • stores values in appropriate locations
  • Made up of combinational devices
slide17
Bus
  • Internal bus: common path connecting all registers in a register machine’s CPU
    • each register composed of multiple bits, all of which can be transferred simultaneously to another register
    • bus composed of parallel wires – as many lines as there are bits in registers
    • may also include control lines indicating which registers should send & receive
    • action must be coordinated, as bits from only one register at a time can be broadcast over bus
    • coordination requires timing mechanism
putting it together
Putting it together
  • Parallel AND gates used to connect registers to bus
  • One input line to each gate is data waiting to be transmitted, second is select signal (CLOCK)
  • Date transmitted only if select signal is 1
strobing
Strobing
  • When select signal is high, each gate allows signal to flow
    • clock (select) ANDed with each bit from registers
    • all bits transmitted simultaneously, and received simultaneously at destination register
clock
Clock
  • Source of all select signals; generates pulses at fixed rate
  • Normal state is low (0); transmits 1 at regular interval
  • Speed measured in hertz:
    • 1 Hz = 1 cycle/second
    • 1 MHz = 1,000,000 cycles/second
    • 1 cycle ~ 1 step of fetch/execute cycle
  • Time interval between pulses measured in fractions of seconds – for PC, typically nanoseconds (1 s ~ 1/1,000,000,000 second)
arithmetic logic unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit
  • Part of the computer that computes
  • All operations performed using combinations of logic circuits
    • logical operations are performed by connecting operands bit-wise through ganged gates of appropriate type
    • arithmetic operations are also performed logically: operands connected bit-wise through ganged gates of appropriate type(s)
performing arithmetic operations
Performing arithmetic operations
  • Can break down any binary arithmetic operation into set of operations on pairs of bits
  • Each unique pair of bits combines to produce
    • result (0 or 1)
    • carry (0 or 1) when result is larger than either of the two operands
  • These 2 output bits can be viewed as single 2-bit number representing result of arithmetic operation on two 1-bit operands
performing arithmetic operations24
Performing arithmetic operations
  • Example: addition of two operands produces the results shown in the truth table below:
  • Notes on truth table
    • First output (Sum) same as XOR
    • Second output (Carry) same as AND
half adder
Half adder
  • A half adder is the logical construction that implements the truth table on the previous slide
  • Half adders take single bits as input, produce 2 outputs
full adder
Full adder
  • Addition of two bits accomplishes only half the task of binary addition, unless we’re satisfied with working in single-digit numbers
  • To complete an addition operation, we must add the carry to the next (left) bit
  • Can construct full adder from half adders; carry from previous bit sum is ORed with carry from correct bit
implementation of full adder from two half adders
Implementation of full adder from two half-adders

By chaining together several of these constructs, we can build adders for multiple-digit numbers

subtraction
Subtraction
  • Result column (difference) can be expressed as:

ab + a’b’

  • Carry column:

a’b

notes on adders
Notes on adders
  • If last bit in series of half adders produces an non-zero carry, result will overflow
  • An adder constructed from a series of half adders is called a cascading adder – results cascade from right to left as previous carries must be determined before subsequent adds are performed
adder as black box
Adder as black box
  • Control unit delivers data to input registers in ALU
  • Device select signal triggers ALU to perform addition & send result to result register
  • Control unit causes result to be copied to its destination