sparta n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Sparta PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Sparta

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Sparta - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 188 Views
  • Uploaded on

Sparta. Sparta. The most powerful state in Greece in the Archaic period (much of the Classical period) Panhellenism assures similarities: Polytheism, patriarchy, slaves, agriculture, arete in battle, etc. Unique differences:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Sparta' - salome


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
sparta1
Sparta
  • The most powerful state in Greece in the Archaic period (much of the Classical period)
  • Panhellenism assures similarities:
    • Polytheism, patriarchy, slaves, agriculture, arete in battle, etc.
  • Unique differences:
    • Singular goals, state involved in private life, an enviable patriotism
  • But the uniqueness can be too quickly interpreted as utopian. Caveantdiscipuli!
sparta3
Sparta
  • Sparta (also called Lacedaemon) is located inland in Laconia
  • 27 miles away from harbor (Gythium) to the south
  • Only one colony in southern Italy
  • Controls all of the Laconian plain by the end of the 8th century
sparta4
Sparta
  • Sparta reduces inhabitants of Laconia’s plain to helots, who remain subject to the state of Sparta throughout generations.
  • Other peoples, in city-states around Sparta, become perioikoi, neighbors.
sparta5
Sparta
  • Helots are slaves
  • Perioikoi are free, but have to serve in the army
sparta6
Sparta
  • Sparta invades Messenia in 740; by 720 Messenia is subject to Sparta also.
  • Some become helots, some perioikoi
  • Civil unrest in early 7th c.; shipped off many to Taros in Italy
  • 2ndMessenian War: 669bc (helot revolt)
sparta7
Sparta
  • Messenians defeated again (although ratio was 7:1)
  • Revolt provided the impetus for Spartan system
  • Reforms aimed at two goals:
    • Free male citizens from all obligations except fighting
    • Socialize them for soldier discipline
sparta8
Sparta
  • The Spartan system
    • All practices were intended to produce the ideal Spartan hoplite
    • State regulates what we would consider private (hair, marriage, sex, child rearing)
    • Male military service till 60 years old
sparta9
Sparta
  • The Spartan system
    • Boys:
      • Birth: a decision to make (dokimasia = scrutiny)
      • Children and boys (7-14), youths (ephebes) to adults (14-20); 20-30 is marriageable age
      • Principles of conformity, obedience, group solidarity, military skills
      • Curriculum is endurance and defense
      • Syssition (mess) develops loyalty and cooperation
sparta10
Sparta
  • The Spartan system
    • Girls:
      • Raised to bear warriors
      • Education at state expense
      • Public role: different than the rest of Greece
      • Social role: childbearing (free from other domestic obligations)
      • Girls, maidens, and married women
sparta11
Sparta
  • The Spartan system
    • Sex and marriage
      • Clandestine
      • Intended primarily for procreation
    • Homosexuality and pederasty
      • Not a binary opposition between same-sex / different sex relationship
      • A part of paideia, education
      • Social utility
      • The usual end of such a relationship (age difference)
sparta12
Sparta
  • The Spartan system
    • Gradual effects: shrinking population (male infanticide; military ethos; xenophobia: Spartan male citizens constitute perhaps 5% of total population.)
    • 9000 Male Spartans in the Archaic period
    • 8000 in 479 (5000 fought at battle of Plataea)
    • 1000 in 330 (Aristotle writes about them)
    • 700 in 240
    • Dying out by Roman times
sparta13
Sparta
  • The Spartan system
    • Equality sought among citizens: homoioi
    • Survival of Spartans dependent on helots: more than any other state, their economy depends on “geographical and social distance between landowners and workers on the land” (Pomeroy et al., 2009)
sparta14
Sparta
  • The Spartan system
    • A mixed constitution:
      • Dual kingship (basileis)
      • Gerousia (elders) = 28 other men over the age of 60
      • Ephors (oversee the kings) = 5 over the age of 30
      • Assembly of fighting men
sparta15
Sparta
  • Peloponnesian League
    • Sparta most powerful state in Greece
    • Policy of alliance with other poleis in Greece
    • League existed 540’s-360’s (defeat by Thebes)
    • Leader of Greece in Persian war; repercussions for Peloponnesian war
sparta16
Sparta
  • Ultimately, Sparta’s unique constitution and history fades, as happens with many totalitarian regimes
  • Athens is just as unique and extraordinary; various other poleis address questions that faced them all in different ways, with different forms of government